Florida, February 18, 2010
Nomination for the
2010 Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize
in Astronomy and Astrophysics of:
The ItalianAmerican Scientist
Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli
President, The Institute for Basic Research
150 Rainville Rd, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A.
Lab phone +1727934 3448
Home phone +1727934 9593
Cell. phone +1727688 3992
fax +1727934 9275
ibr@gte.net
magnegas@verizon.net
Curriculum vitae et studiorum
Honors, prizes and nominations
Summary of scientific discoveries
Nomination submitted to
Professor Radik M. MARTIROSYAN
President, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
24, Marshal Baghramyan ave., 0019 Yerevan
Republic of Armenia
with copy to
Professors Geoffrey R. BURBIDGE and Martin J. REES
Nomination submitted by:
Professor Richard ANDERSON
Chairman, Board of Trustees
The R. M. Santilli Foundation
P. O. Box 1577 Palm Harbor, FL 34683, USA
board@santillifoundation.org
http://www.santillifoundation.org
Dear Professor Radik M. Martirosyan,
In line with the innovative physical theories and mathematical insights of Professor Viktor Ambartsumian which placed his work at the forefront of science, and at times far from the mainstream thinking of the majority, I here nominate Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli for the 2010 Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize in Astronomy and Astrophysics on grounds of the following:
1. MAIN MOTIVATIONS
As a result of a lifelong research conducted at primary universities around
the world, including the University of Torino, Italy, Harvard
University, USA, the JINR, Russia, the Academia Sinica, China and others
(see the CV), Prof. Santilli has achieved mathematical,
theoretical and experimental discoveries implying potentially historical advances
as well as fundamental revisions in astronomy and astrophysics,such as:
FIRST MOTIVATION: The absence of the universe expansion, big bang,
dark matter, and dark energy (see Prof. Santilli's main reference [1]);
SECOND MOTIVATION: The return to the continuous creation in the universe (see Prof. Kadeisvili's review [2]);
THIRD MOTIVATION: The initiation of experimental astrophysics for
antimatter (see Prof. Santilli's main reference [3]);
as well as other momentous discoveries (see monographs [416] and additional references quoted later on).
In particular, Professor Santilli important contribution to astronomy and astrophysics has been the return to the conception of astronomy and astrophysics according to the teaching of Galileo Galilei, via experiments conducted on Earth.
As the reviewers will see, the discoveries by Prof. Santilli have numerous connections with those by Prof. Ambartsumian, with particular reference to his opening of new horizons in the study of space, stars and galaxies as outlined below.
2. FIRST MOTIVATION
2.1. Mathematical Background.
The mathematical theory at the foundation of 20th century physics,
astrophysics and cosmology, Lie's theory, is known as being exactly valid
for the socalled exterior dynamical problems, essentially
consisting of pointlike particles and electromagnetic waves propagating in
vacuum conceived as empty space.
Due to its strictly linear, local and potential structure, Lie's theory is insufficient for the treatment of interior dynamical problems, referred to extended particles and
electromagnetic waves propagating within physical media, since the later problems have
nonlinear, nonlocal and nonpotential effects caused by contact interactions experienced by extended particles when moving within a medium.
During his Ph. D. Studies in theoretical physics at the University of
Torino, Italy, Prof. Santilli initiated in Ref. [18] of 1967 the Lieadmissible structural generalization of Lie's theory for the treatment of linear and nonlinear, local and nonlocal and potential as well as nonpotential interactions occurring in interior dynamical problems.
Prof. Santilli then dedicated the following decades in the study of the indicated new mathematics. These studies culminated with Prof. Santilli's appointment, quite prestigious for a theoretical physics, at the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University in the early 1980 under
five grants from the U. S. Department of Energy administered by Harvard University (DOE grants
numbers (DOE grants ER78S0247420.A000, AS0278ER04742,
DEACO280ER10651; DEACO280ER10651.A001;
DEACO280ER10651.A002).
During his stay at Harvard University, Prof. Santilli set the mathematical foundations of his studies (see monographs [4] and memoirs [19,20]) that were continued in subsequent years thanks to the contribution of numerous mathematicians around the world (see the 53 pages long General Bibliography in Vol. [7a]). Mathematical maturity was reached in memoirs [22,23] and monographs [6,7].
These studies have resulted in stepbystep progressive generalizations of the 20th century mathematics, including progressive generalizations of numbers, fields, spaces, algebras, geometries, symmetries, etc., today known as Santilli iso, geno, and hypermathematics for the representation respectively of: closed isolated reversible systems with Hamiltonian and nonHamiltonian internal interactions; open isolated irreversible systems with Hamiltonian and nonHamiltonian interactions; and open, irreversible multivalued systems [416].
2.2. Physical Background.
As it is well known, special relativity is exactly valid for exterior dynamical
problems for which it received vast experimental verifications that are
now set in history.
Nevertheless, it is equally known to ethically sound scholars that
special relativity is only approximately valid for interior dynamical
problems (such as those within water, planetary atmospheres and
astrophysical chromospheres) for numerous reasons, such as: the sole reference frame available
within a physical medium is the privileged frame at rest with the
medium itself; it is impossible to introduce inertial reference frames within physical media due to known drag forces; the reduction to photons of electromagnetic waves traveling within physical media is not possible for all frequencies, such as for radio waves with one meter wavelength; the reduction of light to photons cannot provide a numerical representation of the angle of refraction, the reduction of the speed of light, and other basic data; etc. (see Ref. [1] for a detailed presentation and monographs [7] for a technical treatment)
By remembering that special relativity is structurally dependent on
Lie's theory, thanks to the prior
generalization of Lie's theory, Prof.
Santilli achieved a stepbystep generalization of special
relativity for interior dynamical problems [47] today known as
Santilli isorelativity for the case of closedisolated interior systems, with corresponding genotopic and hyperstructural broadening for closed reversible, open irreversible, and open irreversible multivalued systems, respectfully (see papers [2433] and monographs [716]).
The new relativity is based on the broadening of the LorentzPoincare' (LP) symmetry,
today known as LorentzPoincare'Santilli (LPS) isosymmetry (with corresponding broader genotopic and hyperstructural extensions) providing the universal
invariance of all locally varying speeds of light within physical media
C = c/n, and recovering the Lorentz symmetry whenever motion returns to be in empty space for which the index of
refraction n = 1.
Santilli isorelativity and its covering LPS isosymmetry was reached following decades of studies for the construction of the isotopies of Lies' theory indicated in Section 2.1, plus additional decades of studies for the stepbystep isotopic lifting of each individual aspect of special relativity and related LP symmetry, including the isotopies of: the rotational symmetry [24,25]; the SU(2)spin symmetry [26]; the Lorentz symmetry [27,29]; the Poincare' symmetry [29]; the spinorial covering of the Poincare' symmetry [30]; the SU(2) isospin symmetry and Bell's inequalities [31] and the minkowski geometry [31]. The universality of the covering LPS symmetry for all infinitely possible, signature preserving deformations of the Minkowski spacetime, including the direct invariance of all infinitely possible Riemannian, Finslerian and other line elements has been proved by various authors (see, e.g., Aringazin et al [33], and Kadeisvili et al [34]).
2.3. Experimental Verifications.
As it is well known, the Doppler shift is identically null for null
relative speed between the source and the observer, v = 0, under the
generally tacit assumption that light propagates in empty space.
For the case of light propagating within transparent physical media,
Santilli's isorelativity and related LPS isosymmetry
predict a nonnull shift at v = 0. This occurrence motivated the birth
of Santilli's isoshift introduced in 1991 [5], reelaborated in various works (see, e.g., Ref. [35]) and studied in detail in the main reference [1] of this nomination, defined as a frequency shift in the absence of any relative motion between the source, the medium and the observer.
In particular, we have Santilli's isoredshift for the case of physical media with low
density (such as air or chromospheres) essentially caused by light
losing energy E = hv to the medium due to interactions. We then have Santilli's
isoblueshift for the case of physical media of very high density
(such as the interior of stars, quasars and black holes) due to light
acquiring energy E = hv from the highly energetic medium [1,35].
In addition to decades of preparatory work in pure mathematics, and
theoretical physics, Prof. Santilli conducted systematic
experimental confirmations of his isoredshift at the laboratory of the
Institute for Basic Research in Florida via the Isoredshift Testing Station that can be seen in the pictures of the website [36]. Systematic tests have been conducted on a pipe 20 meters long with air at about 140 atmospheres via the measurements of the wavelength a laser lights after passing through the pipe with air at pressure and air at atmospheric pressures, resulting in differences that establish experimentally Santilli isoredshift beyond credible doubt. Their first publication in Ref. [1] has been a primary motivation of this nomination due to the momentous implications not only for astronomy and astrophysics, but also for all of physics.
Prof. Santilli has also shown that his isoredshift is necessary for a numerical (rather than conceptual) explanation of the
colors of our atmosphere at the horizon, which color is blue during the
daylight and predominantly red at Sunset and Sunrise. In particular,
Santilli isoredshift is necessary to explain the redshift of light
directly originating from the Sun at Sunset and Sunrise. This redshift is quite large (of about 200 nanometers) and, as such, cannot be numerically explained via photons scattering among the air molecules (which scattering, of course, is not excluded). In any case, for the case of the direct Sunlight the orthodox "interpretation" would require that a very large number of photon traverse a very large number of nuclei without any scattering, as necessary to maintain the straight direction of direct Sunlight.
Furthermore, Santilli isoredshift
is necessary to explain the equal predominance toward the red of light
at Sunset and Sunrise because in the former case we move away from the
Sun, while in the latter case we move toward the Sun. Consequently, Einsteinian doctrines would require a blueshift at Sunrise rather than the visible redness, thus being in clear violation of visible evidence. By comparison, Santilli's isoredshift caused by light propagating in our atmosphere provides a numerical explanation for both Sunset and Sunrise in accounting for the major redshift in both cases. The conventional Doppler's shift caused by relative motion remains evidently valid, but simple calculations show it is quite small, thus being responsible for the small visible different in red between Sunset and Sunrise [1].
It should be indicated that, following Santilli's original proposal [4] in 1991 of the isoredshift, Mignani [37] showed in 1992 that Santilli's
isoredshift provides the only known quantitative (rather than conceptual)
explanation of Arp's discovery of quasars physically connected to an
associated galaxy while having dramatically different cosmological
redshift [38], as originally proposed by Santilli [4]. In fact, quasars have huge chromosphere (at times as big as an entire galaxy) compared to
relatively much lighter gaseous media in the interior of the
associated galaxy. It then follows that light exits the quasar
chromosphere munch more isoredshifted than that exiting the
associated galaxy.
Additionally, Santilli isoredshift as a predictable dependence on the frequency of light (as well as other local quantities), thus providing the only known numerical representation of the internal redshift of quasars light as measured by Sulenkin [39] and others (see Ref. [4]). Needless to say, such a dependence on the frequency also allows Santilli isorelativity to provide a numerical representation of the angle of refraction, the reduction of the speed and other data for light propagating in water.
It should also be mentioned that Santilli's isoredshift is experimentally verified in a number of other cases, such as for radio communication in NASA missions when passing in the back of planetary atmospheres, in long fiber optics, in seawater, and other cases. Additionally, Santilli isorelativity has received vast experimental verifications for
interior dynamical problems in classical physics, particle physics,
nuclear physics, superconductivity, chemistry, biology and other fields [6,7,16].
2.4. Implications for Astronomy and Astrophysics.
As it is well known to ethically sound astrophysicists and historians, the conjecture of the expansion of the universe, and other far reaching conjecture of the 20th century astronomy and astrophysics, were conceived to maintain the validity of Einstein's special relativity for all possible conditions existing in the universe, no matter how far from those of its original conception and verification. In particular, the conjecture on the expansion of the universe is generally presented under the unspoken condition that intergalactic space is completely empty.
However, intergalactic space is far from being empty. In fact, Prof. Santilli points out that the entire universe can be seen from each point of intergalactic spaces which, therefore, is a physical medium primarily characterized by light, with a smaller component characterized by gases, cosmic rays and other particles. In any case, Prof. Santilli points out that particles in intergalactic media cause the scattering of light, thus having no connection with the study of direct light from far away galaxies.
Consequently, Santilli's isoredshift implies that light from distant galaxies reaches us isoredshifted, that is, without any need for a relative motion, because passing through a physical medium primarily characterized by light energy. [1]
Note that Prof. Santilli does consider gaseous and particle
components in the intergalactic medium, but they are excessively small
to account for any measurable shift. By comparison, the energy density
due to light in intergalactic space is dramatically bigger than gas and particle density. Additionally, the interaction experienced by light passing through a light medium does characterize a loss of energy E = hv to the medium, with consequential isoredshift.
Consequently, Prof. Santilli's mathematical, theoretical and
experimental discoveries imply the absence of expansion of the
universe. The studies also explain automatically the increase of the cosmological
redshift with the distance as well as the background radiation caused
precisely by the loss of energy by light to the intergalactic medium, which energy loss is then released in the sole possible form, that of radiation [1].
As it is also well known to ethically sound scholars, the conjecture of the big bang was studiously conceived to maintain the validity of Einstein's relativity for the dynamics of the universe. However, the conjecture has been afflicted since its birth by
irresolvable inconsistencies (generally ignored by supporters of the conjecture), such as:
1) The big bang implies a necessary Middle Age return of Earth
at the center of the universe (due to the radial dependence of the cosmological redshift from Earth);
2) The big bang requires that Earth's galactic
environment should be vastly empty and deprived of any galaxy (as a necessary consequence of
a primordial explosion in our vicinity occurred billions of years ago);
3) The big bang is incompatibility with Newton's gravitation (because
galaxies should attract each other, thus resulting in a decrease of the
cosmological redshift with the distance, rather than its actual increase); and other major inconsistencies known to ethically sound expert in the field [35].
It is evident that Prof. Santilli's studies imply the absence
of the big bang [1] in a way fully compatible with Newton's gravitation. In fact, following the interpretation of the cosmological redshift without necessary relative motion, the increase of the cosmological redshift with the distance is readily explained numerically by the increase of travel of light within the intergalactic media, while current technologies do not allow us to exclude possible small relative motions between galaxies in accordance with Newton's gravitation [1].
It is also known to ethically sound experts that the conjecture of dark matter was studiously
conceived to verify Einstein special relativity within the gaseous medium
inside a galaxy. However, said conjecture is afflicted by major inconsistencies (that also remain ignored by its supporters). For instance, in the event dark matter is uniformly distributed, it has no measurable impact in the dynamics of stars. Consequently, to have any measurable effect, dark matter has to be complacently placed in front of a given star. But then the
dynamics of a nearby star is way off, thus illustrating that the
conjencture of dark matter causes the exiting by astronomy and astrophysics of all boundaries of serious science.
By comparison, Santilli's isoredshift implies the absence of dark matter because the gaseous media inside galaxies has a density that radially decreases from the galactic center, with consequential proportionately different isoredshift of light for stars at different distances from said center [1]. Note the transition from an unverifiable conjecture, to a quantitative science first verified with experiments on Earth.
It is equally known that the additional conjecture of dark energy
has been studiously conceived to preserve the validity of Einstein special
relativity in the interior of stars, quasars and black hoes. In particular, the conjecture is based on the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle E mc^2 for the interior of stars, quasars and black holes.
However, as clearly stated by Albert Einstein in his limpid writings, the equivalence principle applies for pointlike particles moving in empty space. Consequently, the extension of Einstein's equivalence principle to very large astrophysical bodies with hyperdense hadronic media in their interior without any scrutiny or experimental verification, may well result as being, in due time, an abuse of Einstein's name. At any rate, it is today known even by high school students, although rarely admitted by leading astronomers and astrophysicists, that all physical laws are inapplicable in the interior of black holes, thus implying the inapplicability of Einstein's special relativity and the equivalence principle.
The conjecture of dark energy is also afflicted by fundamental inconsistencies, as it is historically the case for the adaptation of new physical conditions to a preferred preexisting theory. In fact, when dark matter is equally distributed, its effect is identically null as it is the case for dark matter. Consequently, to achieve the intended representation of the dynamics of the universe, dark energy has to be complacently placed where needed near a given galaxy, thus implying large deviations from astrophysical evidence for other galaxies, and causing again the exiting by astronomy and astrophysics from the boundaries of serious science.
Prof. Santilli covering isorelativity for the interior of [physical media implies the absence of dark energy because the LPS isosymmetry no longer admits infinities for v = c, thus providing the first axiomatically consistent, causal behavior of speeds bigger than that of light in vacuum, C = c/n > c, where n is smaller than 1. Since the fit of all experimental data for the interior of hadrons shows systematic speeds C > c, it is evident that Santilli's energy equivalence for stars, quasars and black holes, E = mc^2/n^2 is much bigger than that predicted by special relativity. Dark energy is then completely eliminated by an average maximal causal speed within the hyperdense media inside stars, quasar and black holes of C = 10c, namely, a rather modest value if one takes into account the singular character of black holes and their expected large number in the universe.
It should be indicated that speeds C > c have been experimentally verified in various cases, such as measurements by an experimental team headed by Nimtz [41] and other teams (see also Santilli's prediction [42] in in 1982) in which an entire Beethoven symphony was transmitted at speeds bigger than that of light in vacuum via the propagation of electromagnetic waves within certain guides. These measurements have been dismissed based on the validity of Einstein's special relativity also within said guides, for which the maximal causal speed is c, thus forcing the interpretation of the speed as being the phase speed and other adaptation of experimental evidence to Einsteinian theories. The latter experiments acquire their full value when reinspected with Santilli isorelativity because it allows for the first time maximal causal speeds within physic al media bigger than the speed of light in vacuum.
2.5. Implications for All Quantitative Sciences.
As a result of impressive and historical experimental verifications in empty space, the 20th century has seen a widespread applications of special relativity for all conceivable conditions existing in the universe and expectedly until the end of time, without any serious inspection or direct experimental verification.
As indicated above, this widespread trend has caused the exiting by astronomy and astrophysics from the boundaries of quantitative science because, as it has been the case of dark matter and dark energy, far reaching conjectures have received widespread collegial acceptance just because based on the validity of special relativity. The lack of a quantitative scientific process is sealed, not only by the lack of any direct experimental verification on Earth, but above all from the fact that huge inconsistencies have remained simply ignored, rather than being dismissed in refereed journals.
Prof. Santilli has dedicated his research life to mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on this unreassuring condition of 20th century science by confirming the validity of special relativity in the vacuum conditions limpidly expressed by Einstein, and constructing more adequate covering theories for progressively more complex conditions, Hence, Prof. Santilli studies will likely be set in history as signaling the surpassing of Einstein's theories, with no other contributions known to us that could compare for diversification, depth and implications.
3. SECOND MOTIVATION
3.1. Mathematical and Physical Background.
Stars initiate their lives as being solely composed of hydrogen and
end their lives with the production of all known natural isotopes.
Consequently, the first and most fundamental synthesis in the interior
of stars is the synthesis of the neutron from a proton and an electron,
p^{+} + e^{} => n + v (1),
after which, and only after which, stars can synthesize the deuterium
the helium and all other isotopes.
When at Harvard University under the above indicated DOE grants, Prof.
Santilli proved that quantum mechanics is inapplicable (and certainly
not violated) for the synthesis of neutrons because the rest energy of the neutron is 0.782 MeV bigger
than the sum of the rest energies of the proton and the electron. Under
these conditions, Schroedinger's equation become
inconsistent since said conditions would require a "positive binding
energy" and a "mass excess." By comparison, all consistent quantum mechanical bound states in
nuclear, atomic and molecular physics have a "negative binding energy"
resulting in the conventional "mass defect."
In view of these occurrences, Prof. Santilli [19,20] proposed in 1978 the
construction of a nonunitary covering of quantum mechanics under the
name of hadronic mechanics, and proved that such a covering does indeed
allow a numerically exact and time invariant solution of all hadronic syntheses
in which the resulting rest energy is bigger than the sum of the
original rest energies.
Prof. Santilli's 1978 call to build hadronic mechanics was answered
by hundreds of mathematicians, theoreticians and experimentalists
resulting in an estimated number of over 20,000 pages of published
research in the coast three decades (see the comprehensive General Bibliography of Hadronic Mechanics in Volume [7a]). Maturity was achieved by Prof. Santilli [22] in 1996
following the completion of the construction of the new Santilli isomathematics with a Lieisotopic structure and the yet more general Santilli genomathematics with a Lieadmissible structure (see Refs. [6,7] for technical presentations).
In 1990 Prof. Santilli achieved the first known
numerically exact and time invariant, nonrelativistic representation of "all"
characteristics of the neutron in its synthesis from a proton and an
electron. Subsequently, in paper [30] of 1993, Prof. Santilli achieved the complete representation for
relativistic monitions.
Subsequently, Prof. Santilli confirmed experimentally don Borghi's
experiment on the laboratory synthesis of the neutron from a
hydrogen gas, today known as don BorghiSantilli experiment,
and initiated the study of the stimulated decay of the
neutron, since the neutron is one of the cleanest and largest sources of
energy available to mankind, including its use for the stimulated
decay of radioactive nuclear waste via equipment usable in the pool
of nuclear power plants.
It is evidently impossible in this Nomination to quote and outline these vast studies conducted over three decades, and have to refer the reviewers to Prof. Kadeisvili's excellent general review [2].
3.2. Implications for Astronomy and Astrophysics.
The birth of a star is one of the most majestic events in nature because
it literally imply the creation of light from darkness. Prof.
Santilli has shown that such a majestic birth is impossible in the event
the 0.782 MeV energy missing for the neutron synthesis is provided by
the relative kinetic energy between the proton and the electron, or by other conventional energy sources in the interior of a star [43].
In fact, the cross section between a proton and an electron at
0.,782 MeV is so small to prevent any realistic possibility of their
synthesis into the neutron. The use of the antineutrino
as the carrier of the missing 0.782 MeV in the
conjugate reaction p + e + antiv => n also has no scientific credibility due to the virtually
null cross section at any energy between the antineutrino and the
electron or the proton.
In any case, at their birth, stars synthesize 10^30 neutrons per
seconds or more. Consequently, in the event the missing energy
originates from interior conditions, stars would "lose" 10^30 MeV per
seconds, and cannot possibly begin to produce any light [43].
Jointly with the quantitative identifications (via new mathematics)
of the above occurrence, Prof. Santilli has established beyond
scientific doubt that the 0.782 energy missing for the synthesis of
the neutron inside stars originate from space conceived as a universal
substratum with extremely high energy density, the ether. He then called
etherino the entity carrying the missing energy from the ether to our
visible universe [43].
3.3. Space, the Final Scientific Frontier.
It should be indicated that, already when in high school, Prof.Santilli
published in 1956 his first paper [46] in which he proved the absence of the
ethereal wind in the motion of a mass through the ether conceived as
a universal substratum with extremely high energy density. For this
purpose, he indicated that the electron is a "pure" oscillation of the
ether at the rate of 1.2 10^20 Hz, where the word "pure" means that
there is no "little mass" at all inside the electron responsible for the
oscillations, that are performed by a point of the ether. The
some goes for the proton and all matter.
Therefore, according to Prof. Santilli's 1956 paper [46], when moving a mass, we mere transfer the characteristic
oscillations from given points of the ether to others, resulting in
the impossibility for any ethereal wind. The only measurable
effect of the ether on masses is their inertia.
Quite impressively, contrary to our fallacious sensory perception,
the ether emerges as being
completely "full," in the sense of occupying the entire universe, and
matter is completely empty, in the sense of being mere oscillations of
the former without any "solid" content [46].
Some 53 years later, Prof. Santilli provided in 2006 with his isoredshift experimental confirmation of his 1956 conception of space. In fact, the numerical representation of the isoredshift, as well as of the various data on the phenomenology of light traveling in water, confirms that light as well as photon wavepackets (whey applicable) are an electromagnetic wave propagating in the ether.
The reduction of light to photons interpreted as particles propagating in empty space is easily dismissed as nonscientific because, for instance, it would require that a very large number of photon particles traverse a very large number of nuclei as a necessary condition to maintain the straight directly of a light beam in water. Such a straight light beam can be solely interpreted via the ether because, in this case, propagation occurs in the underlying universal substratum, rather than through a large number of nuclei.
At any rate, as indicated earlier, the reduction of light to photons, even when applicable for frequencies of the order of the size of the water molecules (and certainly not for electromagnetic waves with large wavelengths), is completely unable to provide numerical representation of the large angle of refraction, the large reduction of speed and other phenomena of transparent physical media [1].
As an incidental note, Prof. Santilli also proved that the above conception of the ether as a universal substratum is fully compatible with Einstein special relativity, because of the evident impossibility for us to identify a reference frame at rest with the ether.
Far from being mere epistemological considerations, Prof. Santilli has
provides a new mathematics for the quantitative studies of the ether.
As an illustration, hadronic mechanics provides a specific and concrete tool for the
rigorous quantitative study of the transfer of energy from the ether
(HilbertSantilli isospace) to matter (conventional Hilbert space).
The above discoveries literally set a new scientific frontier of the third
millennium in which the ether becomes, by far, the most important
frontier of knowledge.
The implications are simply beyond our most vivid imagination at this
writing because, as it has been the case in the past, scientific discoveries have surpassed the science fiction of the past. For instance, Prof. Santilli's studies on the ether imply
the possible existence of longitudinal
communications through the ether at millions of times the speed of light (which is a
transverse oscillation of the ether); the possible development in due future time of
spaceships without fuel thanks (rumored as being already available to the military), since energy is available everywhere
in the universe in amount inconceivable by our mind (one cm^3 of the
ether is predicted to have millions of times the energy contained in the
Sun); the so called isogeometric locomotion in which motion is generated by a mutation of space without Newton's action and reaction; and other far reaching possibilities.
4. THIRD MOTIVATION
4.1. Historical Background.
One of the biggest scientific imbalances
of the 20th century was created by the study of matter at all possible levels,
from Newtonian mechanics to second quantization, while antimatter was solely studied
at the level of second quantization.
Prof. Santilli proved that the origin of this scientific imbalance rests on Einstein special and general relativity solely admitting the sign of the charge as a means for a distinction between matter and antimatter. As a result, Einstein's theories are unable to provide any classical distinction between "neutral" matter and antimatter. Even for the case of charged particles Einstein's theories are afflicted by serious inconsistencies since they yield as operator image a "particle," rather then the needed antiparticle, with the wrong sign of the charge.
In short, Prof. Santilli proved that Einstein's special and general relativity are inapplicable for a classical representation of antimatter, and they could not be considered as being violated since antimatter had yet to be discovered at the time of the formulation of said theories.
The above basic insufficiency of Einstein's theories has caused historical consequences in the 20th century astronomy and astrophysics, such as the widespread belief that antimatter galaxies do not exist because they are not predicted by Einstein's theories, while we have evidence of antimatter asteroids (such as the Tunguska explosion of 1027 that can be solely explained via the annihilation of an antimatter asteroid without any crater or residue), and antimatter cosmic rays annihilating in the upper portions of our atmosphere resulting in flashes seen by several astronauts and cosmonauts when passing over the dark side of Earth.
4.2. Mathematical Discoveries.
Prof. Santilli understood that the insufficiency of Einstein's theories for a classical representation of antimatter was due to insufficiencies of their underlying mathematics, such as numbers, fields, spaces, algebras, etc. In fact, the transition from matter to antimatter requires an antiisomorphic conjugation that was impossible with the 20th century mathematics.
When at the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University in the early 1980s, Prof. Santilli first showed that a mathematics antiisomorphic to Einstein's mathematics simply did not exist and had to be built. He then discovered a completely new mathematics, today known as Santilli isodual mathematics, based on a negative unit and the reconstruction of all physical and mathematical quantities and all their operations in such a way to admit a negative unit as the correct right and left unit at all levels.
As it is well known, the unit is at the foundation of all mathematical and physical structures. Consequently, the change of the basic unit required Prof. Santilli decades of laborious efforts for the construction of the isodual image of all 20th century main mathematical and physical formulations [3].
4.3. Physical Discoveries.
Stated in a nutshell, Prof. Santilli has resolved the historical imbalance of the 20th century between matter and antimatter, by discovering a new theory, today known as Santilli isodual theory of antimatter, that allows a consistent description of antimatter at all levels, from Newtonian mechanics to second quantization, with a complete scientific democracy between matter and antimatter.
Moreover, Santilli's isodual theory verifies all available experimental data on antimatter at both the classical and particle levels. At the classical level, it is easy to prove that NewtonSantilli isodual equations for antiparticles verify all classical experimental evidence, while the isodual map coincide with charge conjugation at the operator level, thus verifying at that level too all experimental data on antiparticles available at the moment [3].
The mechanisms for these historical achievements is quite simple. Santilli isodual map is an antiHermitean conjugation that, as such, maps the totality of the physical quantities and their units into their conjugate antiHermitean versions. Starting with the representation of the characteristics of a particle via measurements of its mass, energy, time, charges, etc. all referred to positive units of mass, energy, time, charge, etc., the antiparticle is characterized by negative mass, negative energy, negative time, opposite charge, etc. but all referred to respective negative units. In this way neutral particles (for which the charge is null) do indeed admit their neutral antiparticles, and the operator image of a charged antiparticle is indeed the correct antiparticle with the correct sign of the charge.
In conclusion, Santilli's isodual mathematics has resolved the historical problematic aspect of negative mass, negative energy and negative times because, when referred to negative units, are as causal as conventional positive mass, energy and time referred to corresponding positive units.
A first fundamental prediction of Santilli's isodual theory is the existence of gravitational repulsion (antigravity) between matter and antimatter that has been proved as being necessary for consistency at all levels of study, from NewtonSantilli isodual mechanics to second isodual quantization [3].
An additional, far reaching prediction is that light emitted by antimatter is physically different than light emitted by matter and the two lights can be experimentally distinguished, e.g., because a matter gravitational field such as that of Earth attracts light emitted by matter but repels light emitted by antimatter [3].
Despite the simplicity of the above discoveries, their implications are far reaching. For instance, Prof. Santilli has shown that the interpretation of Dirac's equation popularly used in 20th century particle physics (as solely representing an electron with spin 1/2) is mathematically and physically incorrect. He proved the mathematical inconsistency by showing that there exist no reducible or irreducible spin 1/2 representation of the SU(2) symmetry with the four dimensions of the gamma matrices. Consequently, Dirac's equation cannot represent a single spin 1/2 particle.
By using his isodual mathematics, the mathematically and physically consistent interpretation of Dirac's equation is that of representing the Kronecker product of a spin 1/.2 particle (characterized by the twodimensional Pauli's matrices and their unit) representing the electron, and its isodual (characterized by the isodual Pauli's matrices and their negative unit) representing the positron. In fact, the forth component of the gamma matrices characterizes precisely a positive twodimensional unit plus its twodimensional negative image.
The implications in particle physics alone are far reaching. As an illustration, a reinterpretation of Dirac's equation implies a reinterpretation of Feynman's scattering theory and related numerical results achieved in the 20th century [45].
4.4. Implications for Astrophysics and Cosmology.
Prof. Santilli has stated: Since I was a high school student, I wanted to know whether a far away galaxy is made up of matter or of antimatter. During my Ph. D. studies, I realized that 20th century theoretical physics provided no means whatsoever for the indicated distinction. Therefore, I set as one of my primary research goals, the identification of mathematical, theoretical and experimental methods permitting to know whether a far away galaxy is made up of matter or of antimatter. Despite the simplicity of the question, the identification of the necessary means turned out as being the most difficult research task of my life whose solution required decades of efforts.
As indicated earlier, antimatter galaxies were popularly believed not to exist in the universe because not predicted by Einstein's theories. Consequently, all astronomical and astrophysical studies of the 20th century have been restricted to matter galaxies. There is no doubt for serious scholars that Prof. Santilli's studies will mark in history the initiation of antimatter astronomy and astrophysics, not only at the mathematical and theoretical levels. but also and more importantly at the experimental level.
Light coming from a far away galaxy can be subjected to experimental measurements to ascertain whether it originates from a matter or an antimatter galaxy. One measurement is that of having pictures of far away galaxies, firstly, when their light reaches Earth after passing near a matter body such as Jupiter and, secondly, when the same light dos not pass near a matter body. Light from a matter galaxies is predicted as being attracted and that from antimatter galaxies is predicted as being repelled, resulting in visible differentiations.
For additional experimentally verifiable distinctions between matter and antimatter light, we have to refer the reviewer to the technical literature because excessively technical for this Nomination [3].
4.5. Space Antimatter Astronomy and Astrophysics.
In the same way as antimatter cosmic rays cannot reach us at sea level on Earth (because they annihilate in our atmosphere), light from antimatter galaxies is equally predicted to annihilate in our atmosphere. Consequently, Prof. Santilli predicts no possibility of experimental detection of antimatter galaxies at sea level on Earth, a prediction that explains the lack of detection of antimatter galaxies to date [3].
Consequently, Prof. Santilli's initiation of antimatter astronomy and astrophysics is solely intended for its conduction in space, such as in the available international space station. Additionally, Prof. Santilli predicts that the detection in space of light from distant antimatter galaxies cannot be achieved with currently used telescope, because they imply the passing of antimatter light through matter lenses, as a result of which antimatter light may never reach current detectors. Therefore, an entire new technology must be developed for the detection without ambiguities of light emitted by far away galaxies without any contact with matter prior to reaching the detector.
Independently from the above studies, it is known that a number of astrophysical evidence cannot be explained via Einstein's gravitation, and some courageous astrophysicist has voiced the possible explanations via antigravity, such as in cases of apparent "antideflection (repulsion) of light." The latter interpretation has been immediately dismissed by the socalled "main stream" in astronomy and astrophysics on grounds that "antigravity does not exist because not predicted by Einstein's gravitation."
However, as recalled earlier, Einstein's gravitation provides no classical representation whatsoever of neutral antimatter bodies, consequently, the use of Einstein's gravitation to dismiss antigravity causes the exiting of the boundaries of serious science. Santilli isodual theory of antimatter not only predicts but requires the existence of antigravity between matter and antimatter bodies. It is therefore hoped that serious scholars, that is, scholars oblivious to the politics in science, will reexamine available astrophysical evidence on antigravity without any consideration whatsoever to Einstein gravitation, and provide unbiased results for collegial future resolutions because available astrophysical evidence could establish the existence of antimatter galaxies even prior to their future direct study.
All in all, the above studies are far reaching because they imply that, contrary to popular views in 20th century astronomy and astrophysics, and despite all experimental evidence solely valid for matter galaxies, our universe could be immensely more populated than currently believed.
5. ADDITIONAL MOTIVATION.
5.1. NewtonSantilli Universal Gravitation.
Since its inception in 1687, Newton's gravitation has been claimed as being "universal," thus attracting all visible entities in the universe. However, since the time of its inception, Newton's gravitation has always been formulated through the centuries in terms of masses
F = g m_1 m_2 / r^2. (2)
Prof. Santilli [41] then pointed out that, according to the above formulation, Newton's gravitation cannot be "universal" because not inclusive of light. To resolve this insufficiency, Prof. Santilli has proposed the reformulation of Newton's equation in terms of energy,
F = s E_1 E_2 / r^2. s = g/C_1^2 C_2^2, (3)
that does indeed include gravitational attraction of (matter) light from a (matter) body besides containing the conventional gravitational attraction between two (matter) bodies, thus being truly "universal." In view of this feature, Eq. (3) is referred to as NewtonSantilli universal gravitation. Prof. Santilli notes that the source of the EinsteinHilbert field equation is not given by a "massmomentum tensor," but instead by the "energymomentum tensor." Consequently, from a geometric as well as physical viewpoint, the true source of gravitation is given by energy and not by mass [7,41].
The implications of the above seemingly trivial reformulation of Newton's gravitation are far reaching, to such an extent that they may require a reinspection of available knowledge of our Solar system. In fact, the orbits of the planets in our system are exactly known, and so are the related forces. However, the currently released energy equivalence of our planets are mere personal views by astronomers because, as indicated earlier, the energy equivalence E = mc^2 has been experimentally established solely for pointlike masses, while extended astronomical bodies with dense interiors may result as obeying Santilli's equivalence law E = mc^2/n^2.
The serious reviewer should always keep in mind that Einstein's special and general relativities are reversible over time, thus being structurally incompatible with thermodynamical laws governing the interior of astrophysical bodies. Hence, the amount and type of deviations from Einsteinian predictions for interior conditions should indeed be subjected of collegial debates, but not their existence. Note that, by comparison , Santilli's Lieadmissible formulations for interior problems are directly compatible with thermodynamical laws [23].
5.2. Santilli Isogravitation.
Prof. Santilli has stated that Einstein's special relativity has a majestic axiomatic structure and an impressive number of experimental verifications in the arena of its original conception, dynamics of point particles in empty space. By contrast, Einstein's gravitation is the most controversial theory in the history of science due to an excessive number of insufficiencies or sheer inconsistencies published in refereed journals around the world that have remained completely ignored by supporters of Einstein's theories, thus preventing gravitation from being a truly scientific theory.
By far the most controversial aspect of Einstein's gravitation is its representation via curvature from which most of the other controversies follow either directly or indirectly. In fact, from Eq (3), the bending of light is a purely Newtonian event and its representation via actual curvature of space causes catastrophic structural inconsistencies.
To begin, the interpretation of light bending as due to actual curvature of space mandates the admission that Newton's gravitation is not universal, because solely valid for masses. But then, the lack of Newtonian attraction of light cannot be solely assumed as occurring for the bending of light and must be assumed at all Riemannian levels, by causing catastrophic geometric and physical inconsistencies, including the dismissal of claimed "experimental verifications." Finally, the denial of the universal character of Newton's gravitation would literally require the reconstruction of the entire 20th century physics, including special relativity.
In any case, the representation of gravitation with a curved space is incompatible with another major gravitational event, the free fall of bodies along a straight radial line. Additionally, Riemannian gravitation does not permit the representation of the weight of a stationary body, and has other insufficiencies [3].
Additionally, curvature has prohibited for about one century the formulation of a consistent operator form of gravity (due to a necessarily nonunitary operator image violating causality and other laws), thus leaving particle physics in a state of suspended animation; curvature has prohibited the achievement of a grand unification due to its evident incompatibility with the other structurally flat interactions; and there is an additional plethora of ignored, thus unresolved objections moved throughout the 20th century against Einstein's gravitation regarding conservation laws, absence of sources, etc.
Additionally, Prof. Santilli has published nine theorems of catastrophic inconsistencies of Einstein's gravitation [46], among which we indicate:
1) the incompatibility of Einstein's gravitation with the Freud identity of the Riemannian geometry since the former has no source for neutral massive bodies, while the latter requires a first order source for all consistent Riemannian representations of gravity;
2) The lack of uniqueness of the various linearizations of the field equations, with consequential lack of unique connection between the claimed "experimental verifications" and the original nonlinear field equations;
3) The lack of invariance over time of the numerical predictions under the same conditions due to the "covariance" of gravitation rather than the "invariance" of special relativity under the Poincare' symmetry assuring the invariance over time of its numerical predictions; and other rather serious flaws too technical to be reviewed here.
In an attempt of initiating the return of gravitation to the serious science that was during Einstein's times, thus requiring collegial debates published in unbiased as well as refereed journals, Prof. Santilli has proposed a new model of gravitation, today known as based on a basically new flat geometry, the MinkowskiSantilli isogeometry [32], that allows a universal invariance (rather than covariance) of all possible gravitation under the LorentzPoincare'Santilli isosymmetry, that resolves currently known objections.
By regretting the inability to review this new conception of gravitation in this Nomination, we should at least indicate its main astronomical and astrophysical implications, such as: the first known interior gravitational models with a realistic representation of the locally varying speed of light for interior conditions in a way compatible with thermodynamical laws; the absence
of black holes and their replacement with brown holes defined as having the same properties of black holes, except for the absence of infinities, such as infinite density and pointlike dimension. This is due to the absence of singularities for a realistic interior gravitation, which singularities are a mere geometric abstraction for strictly exterior gravitational models that, as such, is merely approximately valid for realistic interior models; and other advances.
Besides the resolution of historical flaws, the technically most sophisticated achieved by Prof.Santilli has been that of a grand unification inclusive of gravitation for matter as well as for antimatter whose technical understanding requires the entirety of his mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies [3].
5.3. Santilli Iso, Geno and HyperCosmologies.
We should finally indicate, at least for completeness, Prof. Santilli's basically new cosmologies based on his novel iso, geno, and hypermathematics for matter and their isodual for antimatter, the last ones being irreversible and multivalued (rather than multidimensional), thus permitting the representation of different universes all coexisting in our (3+1)dimensional spacetime. Besides being the first known cosmologies with a consistent inclusion of antimatter, some of the features of the new cosmologies are far reaching, particularly for the nonexpert in Prof. Santilli's discoveries, such as:
1) All Santilli's cosmologies are based on a universal invariance, such as that under the LorentzPoincare'Santilli isosymmetry for matter and its isodual for antimatter, that is isomorphic to the conventional LorentzPoincare' symmetry. Therefore, the basic axioms of Santilli's new cosmologies coincide at the abstract level with those of the special (rather than general) relativity.
2) In accordance with the Greek meaning of the name, a "cosmology" can be considered as such, if and only if it includes a quantitative description of the totality of the content of the universe, thus including all living organisms, an inclusion never attempted, to our best knowledge, prior to Prof. Santilli's studies. The difficulties of such an inclusion are easily illustrated by the fact that Einstein's theories and quantum mechanics are incompatible with deformations (because deformations cause the breaking of the basic rotational symmetry) and reversible over time (because the mathematical and physical structure is invariant under time reversal), thus predicting organisms that are perfectly rigid and perfectly eternal. The broadest known mathematics, Santilli's irreversible multivalued mathematics, has at least permitted the initiation of the including in cosmological models of deformable and irreversible biological structures, as well as all interior and exterior problems for matter and antimatter.
3) At the limit of equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the universe, Santilli's cosmologies characterize a cosmology with identically null physical characteristics, such as identically null mass, identically null energy, identically null time, etc. Rather than having a primordial explosion with evident huge discontinuity at creation, Santilli's cosmologies admit no discontinuities at the birth of the universe, thus permitting the first known quantitative studies on the creation of the universe as predicted by various scriptures.
6. SUMMARY OF NOMINATIONS
In view of all the above discoveries at the mathematical, theoretical and experimental levels, Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli is hereby respectfully Nominated for the 2010 Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Above all, O mominate Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli because his studies have permitted the return of astronomy and astrophysics to the original teaching by Galileo Galilei, by replacing recept unverifiable conjectures with concrete experiments on Earth.
This Nomination is finally based on the expectation that, in due time, Prof. Santilli may be considered one of the greatest astronomers and astrophysicists in history, following Galileo, Newton and other originators.
7. APPEAL.
In light of the magnificent history of independence of thought of Professor Viktor Ambartsumian, we highly recommend that Professors Radik M. MARTIROSYAN, Geoffrey R. BURBIDGEand Martin J. REES, select a broad spectrum of Reviewers with the same independence of thought, and avoid the consultation of academicians and institutions with a notorious vested interests on Einstein's doctrines (see Prof. Santilli Ethical Probe [47], its three volumes of documentation [48] and the editorial The Politics of Science by Harvard Crimson [49]).
In faith,
Richard Anderson
Chairman, Board of Trustees
The R. M. Santilli Foundation
http://www.santillifoundation.org
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