THE R.M. SANTILLI FOUNDATION
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  October 25, 2013

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CONFIRMATIONS OF
LACK OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE
AT FIVE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
FROM 2011 TO 2013 AND FROM SPACE


1. CONFIRMATION AT THE 2011 SAN MARINO CONFERENCE
Following three decades of research initiated by the Italian-American scientist R. M. Santilli (Curriculum) at Harvard University in the early 1980s under support from the U. S. Department of Energy, the first comprehensive mathematical, theoretical and experimental confirmations on the lack of expansion of the universe were conducted at the 2011 San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and Antimatter, see the website of the workshop with schedule of talks
[1] http://www.workshops-hadronic-mechanics.org/
The experimental foundations were provided by Santilli IsoRedShift - IRS (IsoBlueShift - IBS) of individual frequencies of laser light and of the entire spectrum of Sunlight at the horizon, characterized by the loss of energy to a cold medium (acquisition of energy from a hot medium) without any relative motion between the source, the medium and the observer. The frequency shifts occur via a new atomic mechanism of absorption (emission) of energy, by keeping in mind that known scattering and absorption occur via molecular processes. The confirmations were based on the following experimental papers published in independent refereed journals
[2] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-isoredshift.pdf
[3] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-IRS-IBS.pdf
[4] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-sun-IRS.pdf
The prefix "iso" denotes the need of the novel IsoMathematics for consistent treatments, as outlined in the PRWeb news release and quoted technical papers
[5] http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/10/prweb11249543.htm
and related Report with 61,654 hits

At the 2011 San Marino Workshop, there was the presentation of measurements establishing that the redness of "direct" Sunlight at Sunset is due to 100 nm of redshift of the entire spectrum of Sunlight from the Zenith to the horizon without any relative motion between Earth and Sun, thus being an IRS. The measurements were done for "direct" Sunlight without contributions from light scattered by the atmosphere surrounding the Sun. The lack of expansion of the universe emerged from the full equivalent of the IRS of Sunlight and that of galactic light. Hence, the redness of the Sun at Sunset constitutes experimental evidence obtained on Earth, according to Galileo teaching, on the lack of expansion of the universe and consequently, the lack of the acceleration of the expansion, the lack of the big bang, and the lack of the hyperbolic conjecture that space itself is expanding. All astrophysical data were numerically interpreted via the IRS with ensuing experimental information on intergalactic media.

Dark matter was dismissed on numerous grounds, including: the inability to represent the very data the conjecture had been proffered for (anomalous redshift of peripheral galactic stars) due to the evident inability by a galactic distribution of dark matter to have any dynamical effect on individual stars; the violation of Newton's gravitation because, in the event galaxies were filled up with dark matter, they should contract; and other inconsistencies. The IRS provides a numerically exact representation of the anomalous redshift of peripheral galactic stars, with ensuing experimental information on innergalactic gases in regard to density, composition, etc.

Dark Energy was dismissed also on numerous grounds, such as the fact that this conjecture too does not explain the preceding conjecture it was proffered for (acceleration of the expansion of the universe) without additional hyperbolic conjectures, e.g., because when uniformly distriburted dark energy cannot possible affect the dynamics of any galaxy, because energy is the source of all gravitational attraction rather than acceleration of the repulsion, and other reasons. In any case, the lack of expansion of the universe eliminates the very need for the farfetched conjecture that the universe is mostly composed by a mysterious and invisible energy (without denying that the universal substratum itself - the ether - may have a very high energy density).

The participants of the 2011 San Marino Conference identified with clarity that Santilli IRS and IBS violate the 20th century formulation of Einstein's axioms for special relativity due to the evident violation of the Doppler axiom. However, the participants pointed out that the prefix "iso" stands to indicate in its Greek sense the preservation of Einstein's abstract axioms by the new frequency shifts, although only when realized with the broader isomathematics [5]. At any rate, the participants admitted with equal clarity that the loss of energy by light to traversed media is an experimental evidence we cannot deny because it is experienced by all of us on a daily bases with the worm up of our atmosphere when traversed by Sunlight.


Figure 1. The diagram presented by Santilli at the 2012 Kos Conference (see its treatment in Ref. [9]) establishing the inconsistencies of the conjecture of the expansion of the universe due to its inherent acceleration. In fact, two galaxies at double distance from Earth, G1 and G2, must have a relative acceleration according to the Einstein/Doppler interpretation of the cosmological redshift, while there exist an infinite number of observers in the universe for which the same galaxies G1 and G2 have the same distance, thus having no relative motion at all. This diagram was also used at the 2012 Kos Conference to dismiss the very farfetched conjecture that space itself is expanding in an attempt to avoid a return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe. In fact, only a uniform expansion would imply the same cosmological; redshift for all observers in the universe while, in the :"experimental" reality, Hubble's law establishes a proportionality of the cosmological redshift on the distance for "all radial directions from Earth." Therefore, in the event space itself were expanding, the inconsistencies of this diagram not only would persist, but they would increase due to the increase of the acceleration between galaxies G1 and G2 created by the expansion of space for observers on Earth but not for the rest of the universe.


On historic grounds, the participants of the 2011 San Marino Conference recalled the first astrophysical evidence against the expansion of the universe, which is given by Arp's pair of quasars and galaxies that are physically associated according to clear gamma spectroscopic evidence, yet they have very different cosmological redshifts. A special session of the Conference was devoted to the numerically exact representation of said large differences in cosmological redshifts of Arp's pair at equal distances from Earth via Santilli IRS under the sole use of great differences between relatively thin innergalactic media and the very large chromospheres surrounding quasars, as known to experts since 1991, see the paper
[6] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-31.pdf

The participants of the Conference also recalled the first hypothesis by F. Zwicky of 1929 on galactic light losing energy to intergalactic media, although the hypothesis was proposed according to a mechanism (scattering) that would prevent us seeing far away galaxies. Santilli contributions have been the invariant theoretical treatment of loss of energy by light to media, its experimental verifications, and the identification of a mechanism (of atomic rather than molecular character) permitting the view of far away galaxies. For these contributions, the use of the IRS in astrophysics and cosmology was called at the Conference the Zwicky-Santilli effect, a terminology now adopted by experts in the field.

Finally, the participants of the Conference recalled that the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe caused by the radial expansion of the universe and its acceleration, by no means, has been suggested by Santilli and/or his associates, as popularly heard in contemporary academic corridors. In fact, Edwin Hubble, Fritz Zwicky, Louis de Broglie and other famous scientists died without accepting the expansion of the universe precisely in view of its consequential return to the Middle Ages.


2. CONFIRMATIONS AT THE 2012 KOS CONFERENCE.
The second comprehensive confirmations on the lack of expansion of the universe and related conjectures were conducted at the 2012 Seminar Course on Hadronic Mechanics, Session 50 of the 2012 ICNAAM Conference in Kos, Greece, see schedule of talks
[7] http://www.santilli-foundation.org//docs/2012-Kos-Talk-Schedule.docx
and DVDs of lectures available in Level VII of the World Lecture Series
[8] http://www.world-lecture-series.org/kos-2012
As one can see in [7], the seminar course was organized with the invited participation of supporters and dissident views on the lack of expansion of the universe. The seminar course was also attended by an international collaboration of independent scientists who confirmed Santilli's IRS and IBS via measurements done in the U.S.A. as well as in Europe and for Sunset as well as Sunrise, see the paper published in a refereed journal
[9] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/IRS-confirmations-212.pdf,
see also the review with general references up to 2012 all available in free pdf download
[10] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/Confirm-No-Exp.php
and the 2012 documentary A New Renaissance in Cosmology, John Pace Director
[11] http://www.world-lecture-series.org/a-new-renaissance

During the 2012 Kos conference, all main arguments in support of current widespread conjectures in cosmology were analyzed in detail and dismissed with quantitative processes (see Section 10 of Ref. [9]). As an example, when dealing with the cosmological redshift, the general attitude is that of assuming the "frequency" shift as being fundamental evidently for the intent of maintaining Einstein's theories via the Doppler conjecture on the expansion of the universe, while the "intensity" (luminosity) of galaxies is considered a complementary aspect. By contrast, when dealing with the redshift of "direct" Sunlight at Sunset, since there is no sufficient relative motion between Earth and Sun, the "frequency" shift is dismissed also to maintain Einstein theories, while the "intensity" is assumed as being the origin of all redshifts, including that of "direct" sunlight, via Rayleigh or some other scattering, in clear violation of the universality of physical laws, see the dismissal
[12] http://www.scientificethics.org/Criticisms-Gandzha.pdf

In any case, everybody can observe clouds just before Sunrise that are intensely red, to become white later on during the day. Since this redness is clearly caused by "direct" Sunlight without any atmospheric or other scattering since the atmosphere is still dark, this visual evidence dismisses Rayleigh and other scatterings, while providing an additional support of the IRS origin of the Sun redshift. Note that, due to Earth's rotation, the clouds moves away from the Sun at Sunrise (at about 1,200 km/h at the Equator). Therefore, in the event Einstein's theories were applicable in our atmosphere, the indicated clouds should be blue, rather than dark red.



Figure 2. A view of one of a series of Santilli's [2-4] measurements establishing for the first time that direct Sunlight experiences an IRS of about 100 nm in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon, as first conjectured in Santilli's monographs 21,22] of 1991. Note the disappearance of the blue light at the horizon and the emergence of infrared light not existing at the Zenith. These measurements have been systematically and independently confirmed in Ref. [9] via tests done in the U. S. A, and Europe and at both Sunset and Sunrise, all showing the same IRS of 100 nm. It should be noted that the 100 nm of IRS are the same for both Sunset and Sunrise, thus establishing that the conventional Doppler shift due to the rotation of Earth provides no appreciable contribution to the dominant IRS.


3. CONFIRMATIONS AT 2013 CONFERENCES
The IRS and IBS were first confirmed in 2012 at the Santilli's New Mathematics for 21st Century Sciences, April 6, 2013, Smt Bhagwati Chaturvedi, College of Engineering, Harpur Nagar, Near Bada Tajbagh, India,
[13]http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/seminar-bcce1-ii.jpg.

The third comprehensive confirmatory studies on the lack of expansion of the universe and related conjectures were done at the 2013 Workshops on Santilli Iso-, Geno-, Hyper-Mathematics and their Applications, Sessions 44, 144 and 145 of the 2013 ICNAAM Conference, Rhodes, Greece, see the agenda of the meeting
[14] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Programme-ICNAAM-2013.pdf
Special attention was dedicated to the need of covering functional analysis, differential calculus, geometries, symmetries etc. for the consistent and time invariant treatment of non-linear, non-local and non-Hamiltonian effects in the propagation of light within physical media. In particular, the participants confirmed Santilli 1991 result according to which Hubble's law z = Hd can be uniquely and unambiguously derived from the symmetry for physical media (today called the Lorentz-Poincare'-Santilli isosymmetry) in exactly the same way as the conventional Doppler law z = v/c can be uniquely and unambiguously derived from the Lorentz-Poincare' symmetry for the vacuum. For an outline of the results of the above confirmations, see the PRWeb news release
[15] http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/10/prweb11249558.htm .

Additional confirmatory studies were conducted in 2012 at the International Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics,October 21 to 26, 2013, department of chemistry, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, India, see the announcement
[16] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/India-Conf-2013.php.
See the U. S. PRWeb release
[17] http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/10/prweb11233288.htm. with related
[18] Report showing 68, 232 hits, as well as the independent PRWeb release from India
[19] http://www.nagpurtoday.in/2013-international-workshop-on-hadronic-chemistry-mathematics-and-physics-gets-underway-at-nu-campus/.


4. A SUGGESTIVE CONFIRMATION FROM SPACE.
A recent, quite suggestive confirmation of Santilli IRS of the Sun has been provided by the astronaut Chris Hadfield during an interview by NPR
[20] http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=241830872
As one can see, in his description of Sunrise seen from space, Hadfield states: "....the light from it [the Sun] initially comes through the atmosphere. So the whole station glows with the light of dawn, with all the big solar arrays glow blood red, and then orange. And then, as the sun clears the atmosphere, and it's directly on us, then they settle down to sort of an iridescent blue." This testimonial provides confirmations of a test Santilli suggested in the 1991 monographs first identifying (see Vol. II, Chapter on Proposed Experiments) the IRS and IBS and proposing measurements of the redness of the Sun on Earth and in space,
[21] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-01.pdf
[22] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-61.pdf

In fact, Hadfield's testimonial constitutes a suggestive confirmation of Santilli IRS of the Sun at Sunrise because, as it is known and admitted by serious scholars, red light is quickly absorbed by our atmosphere, blue light being the most penetrating that yields the blue color of our sky or of seawater at 20 meters depth. Therefore, the "blood red" of Sunlight at the beginning of Sunrise can only be due to the shift of the entire spectrum of Sunlight from blue to red (in a numerical amount different than that measured by Santilli [4] within our atmosphere). Hadfield's testimonial dismisses the claims by I Gandzha, R. Verreault, and others presented at the 2012 Kos Conference according to which the Solar redness at the horizon is due to Rayleigh scattering or other sources. In fact, said testimonial confirms R. Cox paper [12] on the dismissal of said claims because the "blood red" color seen by the astronaut in space is for "direct Sunlight" without any conceivable scattering due to the lack of an atmosphere surrounding the spaceship. Hadfield's testimonial also constitutes visual evidence that, when seen from far away, our Sun admits a cosmological redshift like all the other stars caused by loss of energy light to the intergalactic medium. We merely have the prorating of the density of our atmosphere to that of the much thinner intergalactic media with consequential large increase of traveled distance of Sunlight from Kilometers to millions of light years.

5. NEWS MEDIA RECEPTION
As expected from the great interest by all educated people on cosmology, as well as because of the large financial implications of the new findings, the response on the above outlined advanced by the U. S. and international press has been particularly gratifying, besides having received a large number of messages of support. See Santilli's French interview
[23] http://www.i-b-r.org/Prof-Santilli-Interview.html.
and the representative listings
[24[ The Wall Street Journal
[25] Kansas City Star
[26] Miami Herald
[27] Pasadena Star News
[28] Dallas Business Journal
[29] Los Angeles Daily News
[30] San Francisco Business news
and the representative list of 512 publications
[31] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Publ-IRS-06-13.xlsx
as well as the report with 57,431 hits
[32] http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/PRWeb-report-10.pdf
It may also be of interest the following Santilli French interview on the obscurantism in cosmology
[33] http://www.i-b-r.org/Prof-Santilli-Interview.html.
and the post on the "Politics of Science" according to The Harvard Crimson
[34] http://www.i-b-r.org/Obscu-astr.php.



Figure 3: The redshift of the Sun at the horizon is physically the same as that of the cosmological redshift of galaxies because in both case we have the shift toward the red of the entire spectrum of visible light. But the redshift of the Sun occurs without any relative motion because due to loss of energy to our atmosphere. Therefore, the redshift of the Sun is evidence visible to the naked eye that the universe is not expanding, because galactic light merely loses energy to intergalactic media as first proposed by F. Zwicky in 1929, verified on mathematical, theoretical and experimental grounds by . M. Santilli [2-4] and independently confirmed in Ref. [9 (the Zwicky-Santilli effect). Additionally, the redshift of the Sun increases with the decrease of the elevation (that is, with the increase of the travel of light in the medium). Hence, the increased redness of the Sun with the decrease of the elevation is visual evidence of the lack of acceleration of the expansion. The absence of the remaining chain of far fetched cosmological conjectures is then evident to all.

6. RESEARCH GRANTS
The R. M. S. Foundation has available research grants in astrophysics to initiate the expected revision of current knowledge caused by the lack of expansion of the universe as well as by the astrophysical implications at large of the IRS and IBS, with particular reference to: 1) Expected revisions of currently assumed galactic distances due to the IRS loss of energy, and therefore of luminosity, by galactic light to intergalactic media; 2) Expected revisions of the size of super massive black holes due to the IRS of light from nearby stars in dense, central innergalactic media; 3) Expected revisions of gamma bursts when due to possible IBS of light propagating though gases at very high temperatures; and other expected revisions.

Research grants in other quantitative sciences are available, provided that the researcher abandons the current widespread use of centuries old mathematics, now manifestly insufficient for the complexity of currently investigated problems, and elaborate data, when applicable, with the novel iso-, or geno, or hyper-mathematics for matter or their isodual for antimatter, as outlined in Ref. [5]. Grant applications on 20th century problems elaborated with old mathematics are discouraged. Interested researchers are suggested to check periodically the Archives of the RMS Foundation for the latest news.

To apply, send a one page proposal including title, summary, requested funds and duration via email to board(at)santilli-foundation(dot)org


Ruggero Maria Santilli
Curriculum
President
The Institute for Basic Research
Palm Harbor, Florida
October 25, 2013
Email: basicresearch(at)i-b-r(dot)org

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