THE R.M. SANTILLI FOUNDATION
PROMOTING BASIC SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES AND SCIENTIFIC ETHICS


 
May 29, 2013

The R. M. Santilli Foundation Announces
Experimental Confirmations that the Universe Is Not Expanding:


The Wall Street Journal,
List of News Releases as of 06-12-13
News Release by the KCSA Agency 06-10-13
Summary
Recently published, comprehensive and independent experimental measurements conducted in the U.S.A and in Europe [15] have confirmed Santilli IsoRedShift (IRS) of Sunlight at Sunset and Sunrise discovered by R. M. Santilli (Curriculum) in mathematical, theoretical and experimental publications [7-14] initiated back in 1978 when he was at Harvard University under DOE support. The new measurements confirm that, in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon, Sunlight experiences a shift of about 100 nm toward the red for all frequencies without any appreciable relative motion between the Sun, the atmosphere and the observer. Therefore, the measurements confirm that light loses energy E = hν to cold media, thus experiencing a decrease of its frequency ν, according to a new atomic process proved to be independent from molecular processes, such as scattering or absorption. Since Santilli IRS is structurally the same as the cosmological redshift, thus requiring one single physical law, studies [7-15] establish that the cosmological redshift of galaxies is predominantly due to loss of energy by direct galactic light to notoriously cold intergalactic media, by therefore dismissing the ongoing the conjecture of the expansion of the universe, the conjecture of its acceleration, and related additional conjectures. As it was the case for Galileo Galilei in the 1600s, thanks to his comprehensive studies, Santilli has avoided the the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the Center of the universe that is inherent in the acceleration of the expansion, as first denounced by E. Hubble, F. Zwisky, L. de Broglie and other famous scientists.

SYNOPSIS
By collecting preceding astrophysical measurements, such as those by V. Sllipher [1], E. Hubble [2] achieved the approximate law according to which the cosmological redshift of galactic light is proportional to the distance of galaxies in "all" radial directions from Earth, and the redshift essentially occurs for "all" frequencies of galactic light, according to the well known law

(1)       z = λge - 1 ≅ H d,

where: λge) is the wavelength of light at the galaxy (on Earth), H is the Hubble constant and d is the distance of galaxies in all possible radial directions from Earth.
      Immediately following the above discovery, F. Zwisky [3] submitted the hypothesis of "Tired Light" according to which the cosmological redshift is due to light losing energy because of scattering with the intergalactic medium. Zwicky's hypothesis was (correctly) dismissed on grounds that scattering would disperse light in all directions, thus preventing a direct view of the galaxies, and for other technical reasons.
     The above scenario (of the 1930s) left no other alternative than that of assuming intergalactic spaces as being purely Minkowskian with consequential exact validity of the Lorentz symmetry [4], the applicability of the frequency shift by C. J. Doppler [5], and the consequential Doppler's interpretation Hubble's law

(2)       z = λge - 1 ≅ H d = v/c.

as one of A. Einstein's [6] axioms of special relativity (SR).
     The outcome of the above basic assumptions has been:
     1) The ensuing conjecture of the expansion of the universe with a speed proportional to the distance from Earth, v = H d c;
     2) The consequential conjecture of the acceleration of the expansion (since the conjectured speed increases with the increase of the distance from Earth),
     3) The additional conjecture of the big bang (in the hope of justifying the conjecture of the expansion and its acceleration via that of a primordial explosion),
     4) The additional far reaching conjecture of the expansion of space itself (in the hope of avoiding Earth being at the center of the universe),
      5) The additional conjecture of dark matter surrounding the galaxies (due to internal galactic redshifts not entirely compatible with cosmological redshifts);
      6) The additional conjecture of an invisible dark energy composing most of the universe (in the hope of achieve somehow a representation of the conjectured expansion); and
     7) Additional conjectures currently under way due to known insufficiencies of the preceding chain of conjectures, such as the conjecture of yet additional mysterious and invisible particles called the neutralinos, which are ventured because of the known impossibility of detecting dark matter, etc.
      Despite the power of the assumed background validity of SR for intergalactic spaces, Hubble, Fritz, de Broglie and other famous scientists died without accepting the expansion of the universe because it implies a return to the Middle Ages with Earth necessarily at the center of the universe because of the acceleration of the expansion radially from Earth (Figure 1). Irrespective of that, conjectures 1) to 7) are afflicted by rather serious insufficiencies or inconsistencies identified in details in the refereed literature (see, e.g., [12-15]).


Figure 1: RETURN TO THE MIDDLE AGES WITH EARTH AT THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE.
We reproduce a diagram by R. M. Santilli (see Fig. 33 of Ref. [15]) illustrating that Earth at the center of the universe is a necessary consequence of the acceleration of the expansion. In fact, for galaxies G2 and G1 we have the cosmological redshifts z2 = 2 z1 with consequential speeds v2 = 2 v1 because d2 = 2 d1 radially from Earth E. However, when the same two galaxies G2 and G1 are examined from the galaxy G, they have the same cosmological redshift z2 = z1, and consequently the same speeds v2 = v1 because d2 = d1 from G, thus establishing evident physical inconsistencies of conjecture (2), while Hubble's experimental law (1) remains valid for all observers. In this way, Santilli illustrates the historical rejection of the expansion of the universe by E. Hubble, F. Zwicky, L. de Broglie and other famous scientists, due to the inherent return to the Middle Ages with Earth necessarily at the center of the universe. Note that, contrary to popular beliefs, the far reaching conjecture of the expansion of space itself also implies Earth at the center of the universe because the expansion accelerates with the radial distance in all directions, specifically and solely, from Earth.

      All conjectures 1) to 7) have been dismissed by the Italian-American scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli (Curriculum) via decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies conducted for interior dynamical problems referred to extended (thus deformable) particles and electromagnetic waves propagating within physical media for which 20th century theories are known to be inapplicable (rather then violated) for numerous technical reasons.
      Santilli initiated these studies when he was at MIT (from 1974 to 1977) and then at the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University (from 1977 to 1981) with the construction of a new mathematics specifically built for interior problems, today known as Santilli isomathematics (see the forthcoming 2013 Workshop), where the prefix "iso" is intended to express the preservation of the original Einsteinian axioms and the mere achievement of broader realizations [7].
      Following, and only following the construction of the broader isomathematics, including the step by step isotopic lifting of the various branches of Lie's theory [7b] (because known to be at the foundations of SR), Santilli proposed in letter [8] of 1983:
      A) The isotopic generalization of the Minkowski space-time, today known as the Minkowski-Santilli iso-space-time, with the most general known non-singular and symmetric line element that includes as particular cases all possible Minkowskian, Riemannian, Fynslerian and other line elements in (3+1)-dimensions

(3)       x2 = xμg(t, r, v, d, τ, ρ, ν, ...)μνxν = x12/n12 + x22/n22 + x32/n32 - t2 c2/n42,   nμ > 0;

where the metric g and the n's (called the characteristic quantity of the medium considered) are non-singular but have otherwise an unrestricted functional dependence on time t, coordinates r, velocities v, temperature τ, density ρ frequency ν, and other local variables;
      B) The isotopic covering of the Lorentz symmetry, today known as the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry, that achieved a solution of the historical Lorentz problem (the invariance of all possible locally varying speeds of light within physical media C = c/n4, where n4 is the index of refraction), with consequential achievement of the universal symmetry of all possible (non-singular) Riemannian and other line elements (see comprehensive references on Santilli Isotopies of the Poincare' symmetry and Refs. [20] for advanced post Ph. D. teratments)

(4a)       x'1 = x1, x'2 = x 2,

(4b)       x'3 = γ* [ x3 - β* x4 (n3 / n4) ], x' 4 = γ* [ x4 - β* x3 ( n4 / n3) ].

[4c]       γ* = 1 / ( 1 - β*2 )1/2, β* = (v / n3) / (c / n4), x4 = t c;

      C) The isotopies of the Doppler shift law, today known as the Doppler-Santilli isoshift law, here written for simplicity in first approximation

(5)       λg ≈ λe (1 ± (v/c) (n4/n3) + ...).

      In 1991, Santilli published monographs [9] with a comprehensive study of the isotopic lifting of Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories, in which he pointed out for the first time that light propagating within physical media admits a redshift or a blueshift, called IsoRedShift (IRS) and IsoBlueShift (IBS), respectively, without any relative motion between the source, the medium and the observer. The mechanism originating the IRS is light releasing energy E = h ν to a generally cold medium with consequential decrease of the frequency ν, while the mechanism originating the IBS is light acquiring energy by a generally hot medium. Since these mechanisms deal with excitation and de-excitation of atomic electrons, they are new and independent from known molecular processes, such as scattering or absorption.
      The above prediction was inevitable in view of the arbitrary functional dependence of the metric g or of characteristic quantities, as a result of which law (5) admits the particular form characterized by the expansion of the isotopic term n4/n3 in the distance d traveled by light in the medium, today known as the Doppler-Santilli isolaw, [9b]

(6)       λg ≈ λe (1 ± (v/c) (1 ± S(t, r, v, d, τ, ρ, ν, ...)d + ...)

where the first signs ± refer to the conventional Doppler's contributions and the second signs ± refer to IRS or IBR shifts, thus resulting in four different frequency shifts.

      When v/c is ignorable (namely, there is no appreciable relative motion), the above law admits the following evident particular case, known as Hubble-Santilli isolaw,[9b]

(7)       λg ≈ λe (1 ± Hd + ...),    [(v/c) (n4/n3) + ...)]v = 0 ≈ H d + ...,

where H is precisely Hubble's constant, despite the validity of the above law for the propagation of light in any physical media and not only for the cosmological redshift of galaxies. Evidently, the above law occurs when possible local speeds imply a Doppler shift which is ignorable with respect to the dominant Santilli isoshift.
      As it is well known, Hubble's law (1) is empirical and, therefore, without any theoretical backgrounds. By contrast, the important of Santilli isolaw (7) is that it is uniquely and unambiguously derived from the Lorentz--Santilli isosymmetry (4), thus verifying the crucial consistency condition of predicting the same numerical values under the same conditions at different times.
      To illustrate the astrophysical implications of his studies, Santilli provided in Ref. [9b] the first astrophysical verification of isolaw (7) via a numerical representation of the large differences of cosmological redshifts for Arp's [10] pair of quasars and their associated galaxies.
      During the following two decades, Santilli proposed to most physical laboratories around the world the rather simple and inexpensive verification of isotopic laws (6) and/or (7) via the measurement of the expected redshifts of Sunlight from the Zenith to the horizon [9b] since, after all, Sunlight becomes red at the horizon. No serious consideration was given to Santilli's proposals despite their evident large implications for all of physics due to the erroneous (see below) perception that the experiments were proposed to establish violation of Einstein SR axioms.
      In this way, Santilli had no other choice than that of performing the measurements himself. In 2010, Santilli built with his technicians (at the laboratory of the Institute for Basic Research in Florida) the IsoShift Testing Station in which he established for the first time that a blue laser light propagating in a 60 feet long tube experiences an IRS of about 1/2 nm in the transition from vacuum to 1,000 psi when traveling in air at less than 80o F [11,12]. Independent measurements [13] done in the same station confirmed the existence for the same blue laser light of the IRS for air at less than 80o F as well as the IBS for air at more than 120o F.
      Following the experimental confirmation of isolaw (7) for individual light frequencies, thanks to technical assistance by some of the best manufacturers of wavelength analyzers (such as Jokogawa from Japan, Antares from Belgium, and others), Santilli achieved in 2012 [14] the first known systematic measurements establishing that in the transition from Zenith to the horizon, the entire spectrum of Sunlight experiences an IRS of about 100 nm.
      The energy absorbed by the very cold intergalactic media (mostly Hydrogen at very low temperature) is then re-emitted and provides a quantitative representation of the origin and specifications of the Cosmic Background Radiation that, in the event emitted at the time of the "big bang," simple calculations show to have been absorbed by the universe billions of years ago due to its very weak character.
      Measurements [14] have recently received systematic, independent experimental confirmations via tests of both Sunset and Sunrise in the U.S.A. and Europe [15]. All these measurements confirm the IRS of about 100 nm of Sunlight in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon with z = λge - 1 ≈ 1/100 - 1 = - 0.99.


Figure 2. EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATIONS OF SANTILLI'S ISOREDSHIFT OF SUNLIGHT.
A superposition of the spectrum of Sunlight at the Zenith and at the horizon out of a large series of Santilli's [14] measurements establishing for the first time that direct Sunlight experiences an IRS of about 100 nm in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon. The remaining measurements [14] establish that the IRS is progressive, it begins to be measurable at about 90o elevation, and increases with the decrease of the elevation all the way to the spectrum at the horizon of this figure, the biggest IRS occurring in the last ten degrees of elevation. Note the disappearance of the blue light at the horizon and the emergence of infrared light not detected at sea level when the Sun is at the Zenith. These measurements have been systematically and independently confirmed in Ref. [15] via tests done in the U. S. A, and Europe and at both Sunset and Sunrise, all showing the same IRS of about 100 nm. It should be noted that the 100 nm of IRS are the same for both Sunset and Sunrise [14,15], thus establishing the validity of isolaw (7), rather than (6), because the opposing Doppler shifts at Sunset and Sunrise due to Earth's rotation are ignorable with respect to Santilli isoshifts. We should additionally note that the IRS of Sunlight occurs for all frequencies, thus being structurally the same as the cosmological redshift (1), by therefore rendering Santilli isolaw (7) universally valid for intergalactic spaces as well as for our atmosphere, despite their rather large differences in density, temperature, etc. Note finally that Hubble's law (1) is empirically established from experimental data. By contract, Santilli isolaw (7) is uniquely and unambiguously characterized by isosymmetry (4), thus being invariant over time.


      Note that Eq. (7) has been written in terms of Hubble's law (1) because Santilli [14] has essentially confirmed the validity of Hubble's law in our atmosphere. Hence, Santilli measurement of IRS establish the lack of expansion of the universe and the consequential absence of the remaining conjectures (Figure 3).
      Besides Santilli's experimental dismissal of the expansion of the universe from experimentally verified isotopic axioms, there exist a considerable phenomenological literature also dismissing the expansion of the universe via contradictions or insufficiencies in existing astrophysical data (see, e.g., Refs. [16,17]).
      The reading of Ref. [18] (as well as Section 10 of Ref. [15]) is recommended prior to venturing a possible judgments according to which the measured 100 nm of shift are due to scattering. Suggested readings are recommendable to avoid double standards evidently due to the rejection of Zwicky's hypothesis of "Tired Light" according to which light loses energy due to scattering (this rejection is ventured evidently to maintain the validity of SR for intergalactic spaces), and then the acceptable of scattering origin of the redness of the Sun at the horizon (evidently also ventured to maintain the validity of SR, this time, in our inhomogeneous and anisotropic atmosphere).
      Recall that our sky would be black day and night in the absence of scattering of light in our atmosphere. Therefore, Rayleigh or other scatterings remain crucial to represent the color of the atmosphere surrounding the Sun, but they have no credibility when referred to direct Sunlight since scattering cannot occur along a straight line.
      Similarly, the reading of Refs. [11-15] is recommendable before venturing judgments to the effect that absorption is responsible for the redness of Sunlight at the horizon, because such a view is in violation of the known physical law according to which blue light is most penetrant, while red light is quickly absorbed by our atmosphere, as established by the blue color of the sky for the Sun at the Zenith, the behavior of Sunlight when diving in the sea where blue is the last visible light, and other physical evdience.
      It is popularly believed that Santilli isotopies violate Einstein SR axioms and, consequently, it is generally assumed that IRS measurements constitute a "violation of Einstein's SR." This belief is generally due to lack of sufficient technical knowledge of Santilli's studies, because isotopic theories preserve Einstein's axioms by conception and construction (for details, see Ref. [19]).
      Following the rather impressive and diversified experimental confirmations [11-15] and the complementary evidence [16-19], the view of the RMS Foundation is that Santilli's IRS and IBS constitute historical discoveries because they will inevitably imply a revision of the entire astrophysical knowledge accumulated to date, since such a knowledge is based on redshifts and blueshifts all entirely due to relative motion and the assumption that galactic spaces are empty, while in reality they they are not (see Ref. [21] for implications in various quantitative sciences). In any case, measurements [11-15] void current astrophysical knowledge of a final scientific character, and mandate a re-examination of the very foundations of astrophysics and cosmology particularly in view of the ongoing large expenditures of public money on the chain of excessive, and now experimentally dismissed conjectures 1) to 7).
      It is remarkable that an Italian scientist, Galileo Galilei, disproved the belief in the Middle Ages of Earth at the center of the universe under the opposition of the established power of the time, that of the Vatican. Nowadays, some four centuries later, it has been the fate of another Italian born scientists, Ruggero Maria Santilli, to disprove again that Earth is at the center of the universe under the opposition this time of academic interests on Einstein's theories.
      In closing, we mention that the first International workshop on Santilli IRS was held in 2011 at the Republic of San Marino, in the Northern Italian peninsula, 2011 IRS Workshop. During this meeting, Santilli received the highest honor granted by the Republic of San Marino for the discovery of the IRS and IBS, Santilli's Grand Cross of the Sant'Agata Order. For a preceding more detailed blog on Santilli IRS and IBS, one may consult Experimental Evidence of No Universe Expansion. Related publications can be found in the Archives of the Santilli Foundation. The preliminary version of a one hour documentary on the content of this announcement can be viewed from the link A new Renaissance in Cosmology


Figure 3: VISUAL EVIDENCE OF THE LACK OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.
As illustrated by this picture, Santilli has indicated since 1991 [9] that the redness the Sun at Sunset constitutes visual evidence of the lack of expansion of the universe since we have the loss of energy by Sunlight to air, with consequential redshift, without any relative motion between the Sun, the atmosphere and the observer. The same picture also constitutes visual evidence of the absence of the acceleration of the expansion, because the redness of the Sun increases with the decrease of the elevation, that is, with the increase of the travel by Sunlight in air. Measurements [11-15] have essentially confirmed the validity of Santilli's isotopic derivation (7) of Hubble's law (1) and dismissed its Doppler interpretation (2), with consequential dismissal of conjectures 1) to 7).

RESEARCH GRANTS
The R. M. Santilli Foundation has research grant available for theoretical and experimental astrophysicists interested in conducting a re-inspection of available astrophysical data and compare their interpretation via Doppler's law (2) and Doppler-Santilli isolaw (6) or Hubble-Santilli isolaw (7). To apply, we suggest the submission of : 1) A one page summary of the proposed research; 2) The requested funds and their timetable; and 3) The CV of the applicant(s). Request for technical consultations are suggested to be addressed to the main expert in the field, Prof. R. M. Santilli at the email: basicresearch(at)i-b-r.org . Applications for research grants can be submitted to: The R. M. Santilli Foundation via email board(at)santilli-foundations.org.

MAIN REFERENCES

[1] V. Slipher, Popular Astronomy 23,: 21 (1915).

[2] E. Hubble, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 15, 168 (1929).

[3] F. Zwicky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, {\bf 15}, 773 (1929).

[4] L. V. Lorentz, Philos. Mag. 34, 287 (1867).

[5] C. J. Doppler, Abhandlungen der Konigl. Bohm. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (V. Folge, Bd. 2, S. 465 (1842).

[6] A. Einstein, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 17, 891 (1905).

[7] R. M. Santilli. Foundation of Theoretical Mechanics, Volume I (1978) [7a], and Volume II (1982) [7b], Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany,
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-209.pdf
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-69.pdf

[8] R. M. Santilli, "Lie-isotopic Lifting of Special Relativity for Extended Deformable Particles," Lettere Nuovo Cimento 37, 545 (1983),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-50.pdf

[9] R. M. Santilli, Isotopic Generalizations of Galilei and Einstein Relativities, Vols. I [9a] and II [9b] (1991), International Academic Press,
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-01.pdf
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-61.pdf

[10] H. Arp. {\it Quasars Redshift and Controversies.} Interstellar Media, Berkeley (1987).

[11] R. M. Santilli, "Experimental Verifications of IsoRedShift with Possible Absence of Universe Expansion, Big Bang, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy," The Open Astronomy Journal 3, 124 (2010),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-isoredshift.pdf

[12] R. M. Santilli, "Experimental Verification of IsoRedShift and its Cosmological Implications," AIP Proceedings Vol. 1281, pp. 882-885 (2010)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Isoredshift-Letter.pdf

[13] G. West and G. Amato, "Experimental Confoirmation of Santilli's IsoRedShift and IsoBlueShift," Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering, 12, 169 (2012),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-IRS-IBS.pdf

[14] R. M. Santilli, G. West and G. Amato. "Experimental Confirmation of the IsoRedShift at Sun at Sunset and Sunrise with Consequential Absence of Universe Expansion and Related Conjectures, " Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering, 12, 165 (2012).
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-sun-IRS.pdf

[15] H. Ahmar, G. Amato, J. V. Kadeisvili, J. Manuel, G. West, and O. Zogorodnia, "Additional experimental confirmations of Santilli's IsoRedShift and the consequential expected absence of universe expansion," Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering, 13, 321 (2013),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/IRS-confirmations-212.pdf

[16] p. A. LaViolette, "Is the universe really expanding?" The Astrophysical Journal 301, 544 (1986).

[17]. E. J. Lerner, "Evidence for a Non-Expanding Universe: Surface Brightness Data From HUDF," arXiv:astro-ph/050961

[18] R. Cox, ``Comments on I. Gandzha's Paper: "Solar Redshift Calculation by the Rayleigh Scattering Mechanism," Hadronic J. Vol. 35 (2012), in press
\noindent which presents a comprehensive analysis of:

[19] R. M. Santilli, "Compatibility of Super/SubLuminal speeds with Einstein Special Relativity Axisoms," IBR prepeint May 2013, Submitted for publication
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/super-sub-luminal-speeds.pd

[20] R. M. Santilli, Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, second edition, Vol. I (1995) [20a], Vol. II 91995) [20b], Academy of Sciences, Kiev,
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-300.pdf
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-301.pdf

[21] I. Gandzha and J. Kadeisvili, New Sciences for a New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli, Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf

 

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