THE R.M. SANTILLI FOUNDATION PROMOTING BASIC SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES AND SCIENTIFIC ETHICS 
July 4, 2012
EXPERIMENTAL DISMISSAL OF THE UNIVERSE EXPANSION, ACCELERATION OF THE EXPANSION, BIG BANG, SPACE EXPANSION, DARK MATTER, AND DARK ENERGY
Richard Anderson
Summary
Santilli's mathematical, theoretical and, above all, experimental results entirely dismiss the expansion of the universe, the acceleration of the expansion, the big bang and the expansion of space itself, all implying a return to Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe, because the cosmological redshift and its increase are the same for the same distance from Earth in all directions in space, a conclusion that persists also for the hyperbolic conjecture that space itself is expanding due to the claimed acceleration of the expansion. The lack of existence of dark matter and dark energy is established by the same experiments, since Santilli IsoRedShift provides an exact representation of all anomalies in cosmological redshifts with direct experimental information on innergalactic and intergalactic media.
In addition to Santilli's dismissal, 20th century cosmological conjectures have reached a selfdestructive stage due to: 1) Excessively far fetched implications (e.g., entire galaxies at the edge of the known universe are proffered to traveling faster than the speed of light in vacuum); 2) Gross internal inconsistencies (e.g., per very definition of explosions, the big bang would require the universe to be empty for about 13.7 billion light years from Earth, with galaxies then decreasing in speed, in dramatic disagreement with astrophysical evidence, while the background radiation can be easily proved to have been absorbed by galaxies and intergalactic media billions of years ago); and 3) Large failures in representing the intended conditions (e.g., dark matter and dark energy cannot possibly provide any measurable effect when equally distributed, and they demand the contraction of galaxies and of the universe, respectively, according to Einstein gravitation). All in all, Santilli has initiated a much overdue new renaissance in cosmology along Galileo's teaching that we must first achieve rigorous mathematical representations and experimental verifications on Earth, prior to applying our views to the universe in a scientifically and financially accountable way.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Historical Notes
2. Santilli isomathematics
3. The Universal LorentzPoincare'Santilli Isosymmetry.
4. Santilli IsoRedShift, IsoBlueShift and NoIsoShift
5. Experimental Evidence of Causal Super/SubLuminal Speeds
6. Compatibility of Super/SubLuminal Speeds with Einstein's Axioms
7. Experimental Verification of Santilli IsoRedShift, IsoBlueShift and NoIsoShift
8. Experimental dismissal of the Universe Expansion, Acceleration of the Expansion, expansion of space, Big Bang, Space Expansion, Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
9. Corruption on photons, absorption and scattering.
LEGAL NOTE
REFERENCES
1. Historical Notes
Figure 1. Let us recall that:
Hubble's law establishes that the cosmological redshift is the same for all galaxies having the same distance from Earth in all directions in space. Consequently, the conjectures on the expansion of the universe, the acceleration of the expansion and the big bang necessarily imply a return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe. The is the reason Edwin Hubble, Louis de Broglie, Enrico Fermi and other famous scientists dies without believing in the expansion of the universe [49].
Despite that, Edwin Hubble, as well as distinguished scientists such as the Nobel Laureates Louis de Broglie and Enrico Fermi as well as others, died without accepting the expansion of the universe because they could not accept its direct consequence, namely, the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe since, from the very Hubble law, the cosmological redshift and its acceleration are the same for the same distance from Earth in all direction in space.
(1) C = c / n(t, r, v, d, ω, ...)
where the familiar index of refraction n has the known functional dependence on time t, distance r, speed v, density d, frequency ω, and other variables.
Santilli soon realized that Lorentz failed to achieve said invariance, and had to restrict his studies to the case with constant speed c, because of structural insufficiencies of the mathematics of the time (numerical fields, functional analysis, metric spaces, Lie theory, etc.) since it was developed to treat linear, local and Hamiltonian systems, while the historical Lorentz problem is structurally nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian (i.e., not representable with a Hamiltonian).
Figure 2. When exposed to interior dynamical problems (extended objects moving within a physical medium), such as a satellite during reentry or a proton in the core of a star, a general posture is that their irreversibility, nonconservative and nonHamiltonian characters are "illusory" (sic!) because, when the satellite is reduced to elementary particles and the proton is reduced to its (claimed) pointlike constituents  so the posture says  Einstein's theories and quantum mechanics are recovered exactly. During his graduate studies in mathematics, physics and chemistry in the mid 1960s, Santilli established that this posture is fundamentally inconsistent via his celebrated
SANTILLI 1965 NO REDUCTION THEOREM: An irreversible and nonconservative system cannot be consistently reduced to a finite number of reversible and conservative constituents (see, e.g., the latest review [4]). This theorem establishes that, rather than being universally valid for all possible conditions existing in the universe, Einstein's theories and quantum mechanics are solely valid under the physical conditions for which they were conceived and experimentally verified (reversible, conservative, Hamiltonian, exterior dynamical problems of pointparticles and electromagnetic waves propagating in vacuum). Hence, Santilli 1965 No Reduction Theorem has clear historical proportions inasmuch as it defined clear boundaries of exact validity of 20th century doctrines and the broader conditions for their structural generalization, besides terminating the widespread scientific scam according to which entropy, thermodynamical laws and similar physical realities are merely "illusory" (sic!). By recalling g that "pointlike wavepackets" (necessary for the above "illusion") solely exist in adulterated minds, Santilli proved that the irreversibility, nonconservative and nonHamiltonian characters of macroscopic events, rather than "disappearing," originate instead at the ultimate, most elementary structure of nature, and set in this way his 50 years long scientific journey for the structural generalization of 20th century mathematical, physical and chemical theories (see the general reviews [58,59].
Following extended studies in the insufficiency of available mathematics, Santilli initiated the construction of a new mathematics specifically intended for the representation of interior dynamical problems, namely, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian systems of extended particles and electromagnetic waves propagating within generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic media (such as our atmosphere).
During these efforts, Santilli first required the condition that the representation must verify the same invariance over time as that of conventional linear, local and Hamiltonian systems, namely, predicting the same numerical values under the same conditions at different times.
Additionally, Santilli insisted in preserving the axioms of 20th century mathematics and merely search for broader realizations, for the evident intent of assuring continuity of thought as well as the covering character of the emerging new theories. For this reason, he called his methods axiompreserving isotopies (or isotopic liftings), and called the resulting new mathematics isomathematics, where the prefix "iso" is used in the Greek meaning of preserving the original abstract axioms.
Following numerous publications not listed here for brevity, Santilli summarized his initial results in his two monographs published by SpringerVerlag [3] which initially appeared as MIT preprints, but where released for publication under Harvard's affiliation following the delivery there of a post Ph. D. Seminar Course on the field.
Volume [3a] presents the main mathematical tool, the conditions of variational selfadjointness, with a vast historical search and numerous applications. Volume [3b] presents Santilli stepbystep isotopic lifting of the various branches of Lie's theory (enveloping associative algebras, Lie algebras, Lie groups, etc.) according to the following elemental lines:
1) The lifting of the conventional associative product AB of the enveloping algebra between generic quantities A, B, into the form
(2) AB => A⊗B = AT^{*}B, T^{*} > 0,
characterized by the most general possible quantity T^{*} called the isotopic element, solely restricted by the condition of being positive definite. As one can see, the new product A⊗B is still associative, thus called isoassociative product or isoproduct for short;
3) The consequential lifting of the Lie product
(3) [A, B] = AB  BA => [A, B]^{*} = A⊗B  B⊗A = AT^{*}B  BT^{*}A,
that still verifies Lie's axioms, and it is called iLieSantilli isoproduct; and
3) The axiompreserving lifting of Lie transformation groups, e.g., for the onedimensional time evolution
(4) U = exp(H t i) => U^{*} = exp(H T^{*} t i)
today called LieSantilli isogroups, which prove the clear nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian character of the isotopic theory due to the appearance of the integrodifferential element T^{*} in the exponent of the transformation laws.
Figure 3. After joining the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University in the late 1970s, Santilli initiated systematic studies to achieve a geometric representation of reversible interior problems within physical media (such as our atmosphere) that are generally inhomogeneous (because of the variation of the density with the elevation) and anisotropic (because of Earth's rotation). He soon discovered that all geometries available at one of the most important mathematics departments in the U.S.A. (such as the Minkowskian, Riemannian, Fynslerian, and other geometries) could not provide a quantitative representation of the media considered under the conditions of: admitting the conventional Minkowskian geometry for the vacuum for null density; being invariant over time (predicting the same numbers under the same conditions at different times); and being axiompreserving for necessary scientific continuity prior to broader theories for irreversible conditions. Additionally, the interior conditions here referred to cannot be consistently reduced to 20th century theories because of Santilli 1965 No Reduction Theorem (Figure 1). In view of this insufficiencies, he had no other choice, as a physicist, than the construction of an entirely new mathematics, today known as Santilli isomathematics, specifically conceived for quantitative representations of reversible interior dynamical problems as a particular case of the yet broader Santilli genomathematics for irreversible interior problems (see, e.g., Santilli isoMinkowskian geometry [22] that verifies all requested conditions).
In volume [3b], Santilli also presented in detail a classical realization of the LieSantilli isotheory that he called Birkhoffian mechanics, and consists of the mechanics derivable from the most general possible firstorder action principle, while the brackets of the time evolution law constitute the most general possible classical realization of Lie's axioms.
Remarkably, Santilli also proved in Volume [3b] the direct universality of the Birkhoffian mechanics, that is, the capability of representing all infinitely possible generally nonconservative and nonHamiltonian Newtonian systems (universality) directly in the given frame of the observer (direct universality).
Subsequently, Santilli achieved the much needed invariance by embedding all nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian effects and interactions in the most general possible isotopic lifting I^{*} of the trivial unit 1 of 20th century mathematics, today known as Santilli isounit, which must be the inverse of the isotopic element and can be written in its simple diagonal form for (3+1)dimensional theories
(5) I^{*} = Diag. (n_{1}^{2}, n_{2}^{2},, n_{3}^{2},, n_{4}^{2},) = 1 / T^{*} > 0
where n_{4} is the index of refraction (providing a geometrization of the density normalized to the value 1 for the vacuum) and the components n_{k} provide a characterization of the medium (also normalized to the value 1 for the vacuum). It is evident that, under the systematic use of the isoproduct (1), I^{*} is indeed the left and right unit of the new theory, I^{*}⊗A = A⊗I^{*} = A for all elements A of the set considered.
The unit was selected for the representation of nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian effects because the unit is the only quantity assuring the crucial invariance over time of the resulting theory. By contrast, all other representations of nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian systems resulted to verify:
SANTILLI THEOREM OF CATASTROPHIC MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL INCONSISTENCIES OF NONCANONICAL AND NONUNITARY THEORIES
Noncanonical and nonunitary theories, when elaborated via the mathematics of canonical and unitary theories, respectively, verify the following:
MATHEMATICAL INCONSISTENCIES: noncanonical and nonunitary theories do not preserve, by definition, their basic unit over time. Consequently, they lose over time the applicability of their basis numerical field with consequential catastrophic collapse of the entire mathematics structure, including the collapse of the consistent use of metric spaces, functional analysis, differential calculus, Lie theory, etc.
PHYSICAL INCONSISTENCIES: noncanonical and nonunitary theories do not preserve over time the basic units of measurements, do not predict the same numbers under the same conditions at subsequent time, do not preserve Hermiticity thus lacking the preservation over time of observables, admit solutions with the effect preceding the cause, and have other catastrophic physical inconsistencies.
It should be stressed that Santilli developed the new isomathematics for the specific intent of resolving all the inconsistencies of the above theorem, including most importantly the invariance over time for nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian interactions. To our best knowledge, Santilli's solution is the only possible because, besides the Hamiltonian, the unit is the only remaining invariant of any theory, thus leaving the representation of nonHamiltonian interactions via generalized unit as the sole possible alternative. The indication of the existence of other ways of bypassing the above inconsistency for nonlinear, nonlocal and nonHamiltonian theorems published in refereed journals (as it is the case for Santilli's solution) would be appreciated.
It should be noted that Ref. [4] also provide the Lieadmissible covering of Lieisotopic theories for the representation of irreversible processes, thus providing the irreversible covering of the reversible outline of this announcement.
While visiting in 1993 the JINR in Dubna, Russia, Santilli [5] reinspected the historical classification of "numbers" into real, complex and quaternionic numbers, and discovered that the axioms of a numerical field do not necessarily require the unit to be the trivial number 1, since said unit can indeed be an arbitrary quantity, generally outside the original field, provided that the generalized unit is positivedefinite and the set is equipped with the isoproduct (1).
This led to the discovery of new numbers, today known as Santilli isonumbers, including isoreal, isocomplex and isoquaternionic numbers, which permitted the formulation of isotopic theories over a numerical field, as needed for experiments. Note that, for consistency, all scalars quantities of isotopic theories, such as the coordinates, have to be isoscalars with the structure r^{*} = r I^{*} (see Ref. [5] for details), although this formal presentation will not be generally adopted for brevity in this informal announcement.
Despite the above vast efforts over decades, isotopic theories still misses the invariance over time so crucial for any theory to have a physical value. A breakthrough occurred in 1995 while Santilli was the organizer of an international conference at the Castle Prince Pignatelli in central Italy, during which he realized that, contrary to a popular belief in mathematics since Newton's time (sic!), the differential calculus does indeed depend on the unit of the base numerical field.
This led to the discovery of what is nowadays called Santilli isodifferential calculus with main expressions, first presented in memoir [6] of 1996
(6a) d^{*}r^{*} = T^{*} d [r I^{*}(t, r, v, ω, ... ....)],
(6b) ∂^{*}/∂^{*}r^{*} = I^{*} ∂/∂ [r I^{*}(t, r, v, ω, ...)]
where d is the ordinary differential. Santilli then provided a comprehensive presentation in the two monographs [7] of 1995 that remain the best in the field to this day.
The isotopic image of Lie's theory based on laws (2)(6) is today known as LieSantilli isotheory [814]. A nice presentation of the above scientific journey, with particular reference to his stays at MIT and Harvard, is provided by Santilli in Lectures IIA and IIB available from Level II of the series www.worldlectureseries.org.
Figure 4. Figure 3. As it is well known, but never openly spoken in graduate schools in physics around the world, special relativity cannot be even defined, let alone applied, within a physical medium such as water for numerous reasons, such as: 1) Special relativity axioms cannot be defined due to the impossibility of having inertial reference systems within water; 2) Electrons can travel in water faster than the local speed of light (Cherenkov light); 3) The relativistic superposition law is violated because the sum of two local light speeds does not yield the local light speed; etc. When faced with this situation, a widespread posture is that of reducing electromagnetic waves to photons scattering among the water molecules for the generally unspoken intent of recovering Einsteinian theories and quantum mechanics at the level of photons moping in vacuum. Independently from his No Reduction Theorem (Figure 1), Santilli has proved that such a posture is fundamentally inconsistent on serious scientific grounds because the reduction to photons of all electromagnetic waves: A) Cannot be credibly claimed for radio waves with large wavelength (or even for infrared waves) which have the same phenomenology as light (refraction, etc.); B) Cannot represent refraction (because at the impact with the water surface photons will evidently scatter in all directions); C) Would imply the paradoxical consequence that a very large number of photons must pass through a very large number of nuclei in a straight line without an y significant scattering as a condition to represent the light propagation of this figure; and other inconsistencies (see, e.g., Ref. [46]). Santilli has, therefore, established that the "only" way to achieve a "scientific" (that is rigorous and quantitative) representation of the propagation of light within physical media is the return to the preEinsteinian conception according to Maxwell, Lorentz and others, according to which electromagnetic "waves" are transverse "waves" that, since we cannot have a "wave" within nothing, must be propagated by the ether as universal substratum.
3. The Universal LorentzPoincare'Santilli Isosymmetry.
In essence, Santilli realized that the lifting of Lie's theory generated by the isotopic element (6b) characterizes the lifting of the conventional Minkowski spacetime
7) x^{2} = ( x^{μ} m_{μν} x^{ν} ) I
= ( x_{1}^{2} + x_{2}^{2} + x_{3}^{2}  t^{2} c^{2}) I,
with conventional metric anmd unit (8) m = Diag. (1, 1, 1,  c^{2}), I = Diag. (1, 1, 1, 1),
into the most general possible symmetric (nonsingular) line element in (3+1)dimension, today called Santilli IsoSpaceTime, that can be written in the diagonal form (see monograph [7b] for nondiagonal forms including those used by Dirac)
(9) x^{2} = [ x^{μ}g_{μν}x^{ν} ] I^{*} = {x^{μ} [ T^{*}_{μ}^{ρ} m_{ρν} ] x^{ν}} I^{*} =
where the general isometric g, the isotopic element T^{*}, the isounit I^{*} and the characteristic quantities n_{μ}, μ = 1, 2, 3, 4, have the most general possible nonsingular functional dependence,
(10a) g = g(x, v, a, E, d, ψ, ∂ψ, ...), I^{*} = I^{*}(x, v, a, E, d, ψ, ∂ψ, ...) = Diag. ( n_{1}^{2}, n_{2}^{2}, n_{3}^{2}, n_{4}^{2}) = 1 / T^{*} > 0,
(10b) n_{μ} = n_{μ}(x, v, a, E, d, ψ, ∂ψ, ...) > 0, μ = 1, 2, 3, 4,
The application of rules (2)(6) to the Lorentz symmetry then yielded the lifting of the LorentzPoincre' (LP) symmetry of spacetime (7) into the universal invariance of the IsoSpaceTime (9a), that can be written for isotransformations in the (3,4)plane (again, see monograph [7b] for the general case
(11a) x'^{1} = x^{1}, x'^{2} = x^{ 2},
(11b) x'^{3} = γ^{*} [ x^{3}  β^{*} x^{4} (n_{3} / n_{4}) ],
(11c) x' ^{4} = γ^{*} [ x^{4}  β^{*} x^{3} ( n_{4} / n_{3}) ].
where
(12) γ^{*} = 1 / ( 1  β^{*}^{2} )^{1/2}, β^{*} = (v / n_{3}) / (c / n_{4}), x^{4} = t c
Figure 5. Santilli has established that the most political statement throughout the 20th century, which is still widely adopted in 21st century physics around the world, is "the universal constancy of the speed of light c." By contrast, Einstein stated "the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, which is indeed a serious scientific statement because mathematically rigorous (due to the Lorentz symmetry) and experimentally established (MichelsonMorley and other experiments). The crucial words "in vacuum" are removed from the statement for the unspoken intent of extending the validity of Einstein theories, from the vacuum, to all conditions that could conceivably exist in the universe. The scientific scam is easily unmasked by noting that there is no possibility of even verifying the constancy of the speed of light within physical media due to the impossibility of having inertial reference frames under resistive forces, and other huge inconsistencies. In reality, by recalling the No reduction Theorem (Figure 1) and the impossibility for a credible reduction to photons of electromagnetic waves propagating within physical media (Figure 3), Santilli has established that the speed of light is a local variable C = c/n, as necessary for a scientific representation of evidence. In turn, this establishes the importance of the historical Lorentz problem, namely, the achievement of the universal invariance of locally varying speeds of light C = c/n, that was solved by Santilli in one page of the letter paper [15], but following decades of prior mathematical studies [314].
Santilli then constructed the stepbystep isotopies of the totality of the various aspects of the LorentzPoincare' (LP) symmetry, including the isotopies of: the rotational symmetry [17]; the SU(2)spin symmetry [18]; the Poincare' symmetry [19]; the spinorial covering of the Poincare' symmetry [20]; the SU(2)isospin symmetry and local realism [21]l the Minkowskian geometry [22]; and other aspects presented in monograph [7b] that remains the most comprehensive presentation in the field to this day (see also the preceding announcement by our Foundation dated (11/09/09 http://www.santillifoundation.org/Announcment2.php).
The resulting symmetry is today known as the LorentzPoincare'Santilli isosymmetry (see, e.g., independent references [614] and papers quoted therein). Santilli proved the "direct universality" of the LPS isosymmetry for all possible local speeds of light in Ref. [23] (see again Ref. [7b]). This important property was independently verified by various authors (see, e.g., Refs. [24,25]).
A webnar by Santilli in the LPS isosymmetry and some of its experimental verifications is available for free viewing or downloading in Lecture IIIA, Levl III of the series www.worldlectureseries.org .
(13) (23) ω' ≈ ω / (1 ± v_{s}n/c n + ...)
As structurally inherent in the isotopies, the covering isoMinkowskian geometry and its LPS isosymmetry characterize, also uniquely and unambiguously, the following covering of the Doppler law here also written for simplicity in first term expansion
(14) (23) ω' ≈ ω / (1 ± v_{s}n_{4}/c n_{s} + ...)
today known as the DopplerSantilli IsoShift Frequency Law first achieved in Ref. [15] of 1983, elaborated in Refs. [26] of 1991, and treated in detail ion monograph [7b] of 1995. The reader should not be surprised at the fact that, while the Doppler shift is independent from the space direction, the DoipplerSantilli shift depends indeed from the selected direction in space due to the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the medium.
A most important feature of isolaw (9) is that the ncharacteristic quantities have a dependence on the velocities, thus admitting the particular case
(15) n_{4} / n_{s} ≈ K c/v, K = cost.,
for which isolaw (9) becomes
(16) ω' ≈ ω / (1 ± K + ...)
and we have the following:
LEMMA 4A (15,26,7b]: Santilli isoMinkowskian geometry and its universal LorentzPoincare'Santilli isosymmetry predict a frequency shift for the propagation of electromagnetic waves within a (transparent) physical medium without any relative motion between the source, the medium and the observer.
Consequently, Santilli introduced the following hypotheses [loc. cit]:
I) The IsoRedShift (IRS), occurring with the sign  in isolaw (11) when light loses energy E = h v to a generally cold medium,
II) The IsoBlueShift (IBS), occurring for N = 0 ion isolaw (11) with the sign + in isolaw (11) when light acquires energy E = h v from a generally hot medium; and
III) The NoIsoShift (NIS), occurring when the energy lost by light to the medium is equal to the energy releases
Figure 6. A View of Santilli main hypothesis of 1991 [26b] according to which, in the transition from the zenoith (left) to the horizon (right), the entire spectrum of sunlight is shifted toward the red due to loss of energy by light to the atmosphere without any appreciable contribution from absorption or scattering (see Section 9).
Santilli saw a first apparent verification of his IRS in the radio communication of NASA satellites that, when passing in the back of a planet, apparently experience a decrease of their frequency when the radio wave passes through the planet atmosphere. If confirmed, this would be a verification of Santilli IRS because the decrease of the frequency occurs without any appreciable relative motion. NASA scientist receiving this message are requested the courtesy of permitting access to these data.
Santilli saw a second apparent verification of the IRS in the discovery by his colleague at Harvard, Halton Arp, of quasars physically connected to a galaxy according to clear gamma spectroscopic evidence, but the quasar and galaxy have dramatically different cosmological redshift [27].
By recalling the dismissal of Zwicky Tired Light on ground that scattering cannot cause redshift, Santilli achieved in Ref. [26b] a numerical representation of said large difference in cosmological redshift by simply noting that quasars have immense chromosphere compared to rather thin innergalactic gases, under which conditions light exits quasars and associated galaxies dramatically isoredshifted.
Finally, Santilli saw the primary expected verification of his IRS in the redness of the Sun at sunset that also occurs without appreciable relative motion between Earth and the Sun, and for which scattering cannot provide any numerical representation due to the size of the redshift as well as other reasons.
Consequently, Santilli then proposed a number of experiments to verify or dismiss the existence of his isoshift, among which we quote:
PROPOSED EXPERIMENT (Ref. [26b], page 330): Test the possible existence of the isoredshift in the transition of the sun from the zenith to sunset.
Mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on Santilli IRS, IBS and NIS were the centerfold of the sessions on matter of the 2011 San Marino Workshop in Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and antimatter [27]. Lecture 6 by G. West and G. Amato available from the link http://www.worldlectureseries.org/sanmarino2011 for free viewing and downloading is a nice introduction to Santilli IsoShifts for noninitiated colleagues.
(17) (6) x_{3}^{2}  t^{2} c^{2} = 0
In reality, this is a political posture since the only scientific statement is that experimentally verified, namely, that "the speed of light c is the maximal causal speed for point particles in vacuum."
(18) x_{s}^{2}/n_{s}^{2}  t^{2} c^{2}/n_{4}^{2} = 0
for which we have the
(19) V_{max, s} = c (n_{s}/n_{4})
which is evidently arbitrarily bigger or smaller than c, depending on the conditions at hand.
According to vast evidence accumulated during the past thirty years via the fit of experimental data conducted via isomathematics, Santilli has established that subluminal maximal causal speed generally occur within physical media of low density (such as atmosphere or water), while superluminal maximal causal speeds occur within physical media of high density (such as those in the interior of hadrons, nuclei and stars).
Maximal Causal superluminal speeds are nowadays a scientific reality, as established in the following representative cases:
1) A necessary condition for the representation of "all" (and not just some) of the characteristics of hadrons is that their constituents travel at speeds faster than c [3036]. This occurrence originates rather forcefully from the fact that, as it is typically the case for the neutron [33.34], the synthesis of hadrons from lighter constituents requires a "positive" binding energy for which the Schrodinger equation is inconsistent. The only possibility to achieve numerical representations of experimental data is that via the renormalization of the intrinsic characteristics of particles, called renormalization, that, in turn, can solely occur in an invariant way under superluminal speeds.
2) The exact fit from unadulterated first principles of experimental data of events implying hyper dense hadronic media, such as the fireball of the BoseEinstein correlation, necessarily implies superluminal causal speeds (13) [35,36].
3) Guenter Nimtz and his associates [3741] have established experimentally the existence of Superluminal Communications by propagating electromagnetic waves within certain guides at a multiple of the speed of light in vacuum. Rather than disproving these measurements via countermeasurements as requested by scientific ethics, organized interest on Einstein dismiss Nimtz discovery on grounds that the superluminal character is restricted to the phase velocity, while in reality Nimtz has propagated an entire Beethoven symphony at superluminal speeds, thus establishing beyond credible doubt the existence of superluminal communications.
4) Large masses expelled at superluminal speeds following violent astrophysical explosions have been observed for decades (see, e.g., Ref. [42]). Scientists serious in serious science are expected to join me in the denunciation of organized interests on Einstein's doctrines for their documented suppression of due scientific process in the field, that via publications, and its replacement with schemes in the shadows. In fact, the expansion of astrophysical masses occurs quite clearly under contact nonHamiltonian interactions for which any mention of Einsteinian theories is scientific corruption.
5) The CERNGRAN SASSO collaboration announced in September 25, 2011 (after the presentation of superluminal causal speeds at the San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology, September 5 to 9, 2012), and subsequently confirmed the detection of neutrinos traveling underground at superluminal speeds [43]. The paper was submitted to the Journal of High Energy Physics (http://iopscience.iop.org/11266708) but it was rejected first on claims of violation of causality for neutrinos propagating underground (!). Following the knowledge of Santilli's causal characterization opf superluminal underground neutrinos, the rejection was done on claimed hyperbolic technical insufficiencies studiously selected in such a way not to be verifiable. In particular, the leader of the collaboration (called OPERA), the Italian experimentalist Antonio Ereditato, was forced to submit his resignations. Recall that any serious scientific process requires, particularly for experiments, first the publication of the results and then their dismissal also in refereed journal. Due to these blatantly unusual occurrences, our Foundation hired an Investigative Agency specialized in academic schemes with the resulting report:
Following the announcement at CERN/GRAN SASSO of the violation of Einstein special relativity by superluminal neutrinos, the world highest organized academic, financial and Jewish interests on Einstein theories converged at CERN by acquiring its control, forcing Dr. A. Ereditato to resign, and doing further questionable actions for the premeditated intent of discrediting the measurements of superluminal neutrinos via the abuse of power under large public funds, rather than the use of incontrovertible scientific evidence.
Unless this sinister dominance at CERN is reversed soon, and a serious scientific democracy is implemented there with the publication of all qualified advances and the publication of objections (rather than their voicing in dirty academic corridors), CERN, GRAN SASSO, FERMIAB and other particle physics laboratories around the world are headed toward a historical condemnation of scientific corruption.
Serious scientists are suggested to view Santilli's Lectures IA to IE in the www.worldlectureseries.org on the limitations of 20th century doctrines and the organized political machinations orchestrated by organized interests on Einstein doctrines to maintain their dominance under conditions never intended for and never experimentally verified.
6. Compatibility of Super/SubLuminal Speeds with Einstein's Axioms
In fact, Santilli has shown that isolight cone (18) can be written [44]
(20) x_{s}^{2}  t^{2} V_{max}^{2} = 0
in which case isotransformations (11) acquire the conventional form
(21a) x'^{1} = x^{1}, x'^{2} = x^{ 2},
(121b) x'^{3} = γ [ x^{3}  β x^{4} ],
(21c) x' ^{4} = γ [ x^{4}  β x^{3} ].
where
(22) γ = 1 / ( 1  β^{2} )^{1/2}, β = (v / V_{max,s}, x^{4} = t c
the sole difference between 20th century formulations and Santilli isotransformations being the replacement of c with the maximal causal speed (19). Therefore, Santilli has proved the following
LEMMA 6A [44]: The conventional Lorentz symmetry does not necessary require that the maximal causal speed has the numerical value in vacuum c = 300,000 km/sec, but characterize an arbitrary superluminal or subluminal speed under the appropriate physical conditions and mathematical treatment.
As Santilli puts it: Rather than the widespread abuse of Lorentz, Poincare', and Einstein names by applying their theories for conditions never intended for and never verified, the best way to honor their name is by broadening the representational capabilities of their axioms under the appropriate conditions and mathematical treatment.
In the final analysis, the full compatibility of superluminal and subluminal speeds with the LorentzPoincare' symmetry and Einstein axioms is inherent in the very definition and construction of Santilli isotopies.
7. Experimental Verification of Santilli IsoRedShift, IsoBlueShift and NoIsoShift
Figure 7. A View of the IsoShift Testing Station built by Santilli in 2009.
As a result, Santilli had no other alternative than that of doing the experiments himself. In this way, he built in 2009 at the research facilities of the Institute for Basic Research in Florida the now internationally known IsoShift Testing Station, consisting of: an air conditioned cabin containing a laser; a second air conditioned cabin containing the wavelength analyzer; and the interconnection of the laser and analyzer via a 60 feet long steel pressure tube.
Santilli then conducted systematic measurements for about one year of the wavelength of the (blue) laser light with a vacuum pulled out of the pressure tube and the wavelength of the laser light with the tube containing air at 2,000 psi. In this way he established the existence of his IRS as well as its increase with pressure, and presented these experimental results as well as the underling mathematical and physical formulations at the workshop Cosmology, the Quantum Vacuum, and Zeta Functions, held at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain, March 810, 2010 [45].
Figure 8. The historical first measurements of Santilli IsoRedShift in June 2009 (top view) and of its increase with pressure (bottom view) [46].
The experimental results were then published at the Open Astronomy Journal in 2010 [46], and as an invited paper at for the Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, Rhodes, Greece, September 1925, 2010 published by the American Institute of physics [47].
Subsequently, G. West and G. Amato [48] conducted systematic measurements for about one year that provided final experimental confirmation for the existence of Santilli IRS with air at pressure but at temperature below 70 F, measured for the first time Santilli IBS for air at pressure over 140 F and confirmed Santilli NIS for air at pressure at temperature between 70 F and 140 F.
Figure 9. A view of the equally historical measurements establishing the IsoRedShiuft origin of the redness of the sun at sunset, the main scan being that of the sun at the zenith and the second scan representing sunlight in decreasing elevation on the horizon [49].
All the above measurements were conducted for one monochromatic laser light. The measurements of the IRS for the sun in the transition from the zenith to the horizon required a telescope (to condense sunlight particularly at sunset and sunrise) and special analyzers capable of scanning the entire spectrum of sunlight. Santilli and his technicians secured three different wavelength analyzers meeting said requirement, conducted comprehensive measurements from June 2011 to May 2012, and achieved a systematic confirmation of the IRS origin of the redness of the sun at sunset and sunrise. The results were then published in June 2012by the Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering [49].
Figure 10. An elaboration of the chromatographs of the precveding figure with the entire sunlight spectrum in yellow and sunlight spectrum at the norizon in red, with a clear identification of about 200 nm IsoRedShift [49].
The R. M. Santilli Foundation solicits the independent rerun of all measurements [4549] and can provide funds for their reruns by qualified physicists.
8. Experimental dismissal of the Universe Expansion, Acceleration of the Expansion, expansion of space, big Bang, Space Expansion, Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
In fact, the redness of the sun at sunset establishes that the redshift occurs without any relative motion, thus being caused by Zwicky old hypothesis of light losing energy to intergalactic gases, only according to the new mechanisms of Santilli IRS, and will be hereon referred to as the ZwickySantilli effect. The same redness at sunset additionally provides visual evidence on the absence of the acceleration of the expansion because the redness of the sun at sunset clearly increases with the decrease of the elevation, namely, with the increase of the tangential travel of light in our atmosphere. The elimination of the expansion of the universe as well as of its acceleration then voids any remote need for the conjectures of the big bang and the expansion of space itself.
Independently from these clear experimental dismissals, 20th century cosmological conjectures have reached a selfdestructive stage due to:
2) Gross internal inconsistencies (e.g., per very definition of explosions, the big bang would require the universe to be empty for about 13.7 billion light years from Earth, with galaxies then decreasing in speed, in dramatic disagreement with astrophysical evidence, while the background radiation can be easily proved to have been absorbed by galaxies and intergalactic media billions of years ago); and
3) Large failure in representing the intended conditions (e.g., dark matter and dark energy cannot possibly provide any measurable effect when equally distributed, and they demand the contraction of galaxies and of the universe, respectively, according to Einstein gravitation).
When at Harvard Universe, Santilli had "irreconcilable disagreements" on the big bang with his colleagues here, Steven Weinberg, Shelly Glashow and Sidney Coleman (see Lectures I D and I E of wwwworldlectureseries.org) because:
A) To be compatible with the expansion of the universe, the big bang must have occurred in the galactic vicinity of Earth, thus implying a return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe;
B) By the very definition of "explosion" as per the Webster dictionary, the big bang would demand that the absence of galaxies for about 13.7 billion light years from Earth;
C) The essentially constant distribution of galaxies throughout the universe is in irreconcilable disagreement with any origin due to an explosion;
D) Also by the very definition of explosion, its debris slows down in time, a feature which is against the very objectives to be represented by the big bang conjecture;
E) As any graduate student can easily prove, the background radiation should have been absorbed by galaxies and gust billions of years ago and, therefore, cannot credibly be voiced in support of the big bang. By contrast, the ZwickySantilli effect does solve this additional inconsistency because the energy lost by galactic light to intergalactic media cannot be lost and provided a continuous source of energy for the background radiations until the end of the universe).
Figure 11. Following decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research, Santilli has established beyond credible doubt that the redness of the sun at sunset is visual evidence of the lack of expansion of the universe (because the redness is due to loss of energy by light to the medium without relative motion according to the IsoRedShift law. The same redness is also visual evidence of the absence of the acceleration of the expansion (because the redness increases with the decrease of the elevation, that is, with the increase of the travel by light within the atmosphere which is also according to the IsoRedShift law). Consequently, the same redness is visual evidence on the absence of the expansion of space itself. Finally, the same redness is visual evidence on the absence of the big bang, dark energy and dark matter [49].
In essence, the irreconcilable disagreement between Santilli and Weinberg, Glashow and Coleman was due to the fact that the big bang conjecture did succeed in derailing attention on unavoidable deviations from Einsteinian doctrines, but the conjecture does not represent the evidence for which it was intended (Santilli is reported asking to his colleagues at Harvard "show me the equations published in a refereed journal" for the representation of data.....).
To compound all the above, per se untenable, far reaching conjectures, there is the additional far fetched conjecture of the expansion of space itself, which constitutes the climax of widespread ethical decay in astrophysics and cosmology. In fact, the conjecture that space itself is expansion was proffered for the claimed intent of avoiding Earth at the center of the universe, while in reality serious scientists know that this claim is false evidently because the return to the Middle Ages with earth at the center of the universe is confirmed by the expansion of space itself due to the acceleration of the expansion that, again according to Hubble's law, must be the same for all galaxies having the same distance from Earth in all directions in space.
Ethical problems in contemporary astrophysics and cosmology are increased when passing to the further conjecture of dark matter. To begin, contrary to published claims, Vera Rubin [55] did not measure anomalous speeds in the dynamics of peripheral galactic stars, since she only "measured" their "cosmological redshift," tacitly assumed the exact validity of Einstein doctrines for galactic dynamics; she additionally assumed the exact validity of the Doppler's shift law in the gaseous media filling up galaxies ; and then she derived the "conjecture" of anomalous speeds.
Additionally, in the event equally distributed, dark matter cannot possibly generate any dynamical effects on individual peripheralgalactic stars. The sole possible effect would require dark matter be distributed ad hoc near a given star, with the consequence of catastrophic inconsistencies for the rest of the galaxy.
Finally, Newton universal gravitation requires that matter generates gravitational attraction. Therefore, in the event galaxies are filled up by the conjectural dark "matter," galaxies should contract, against evidence. In other words, the conjecture of dark matter is in dramatic disagreement with the most fundamental physical law, Newton's universal gravitation.
In short, as it was the case for the preceding conjectures, the conjecture of dark matter was studiously proffered for the unspoken intent of maintaining the validity of Einstein doctrines in the interior of galaxies, but the conjecture completely failed to represent the data for which it was intended ("show me the equations published in a refereed journal" ....).
The final conjecture of dark energy constitutes the climax of scientific politics in astrophysics and cosmology, with consequential unavoidable problems pertaining to scientific ethics and accountability. Again and again, as it was the case for all preceding conjectures, the yet additional extremely far reaching conjecture of the universe being filled by with a mysterious energy for about 95% of the total energy, was voiced for the unspoken intent of maintaining Einsteinian doctrines in their central pillar, the Energy equivalence law E = m c^2, not for the conditions intended by Einstein and experimentally verified (point particles in vacuum for which c is certainly the maximal causal speed), but for the interior of stars, quasars and black holes for which said law is a pure personal belief at this time.
The problems of scientific ethics and accountability are identified in all their implications by noting that the far reaching conjecture of dark energy does not represent the dynamics of the universe, trivially, because when uniformly distributed cannot possibly provide any measurable effect on individual galaxies ("show me the equations published in a refereed journal"...).
Additionally, as it was the case for dark energy, a central pillar of Einstein gravitation is that energy causes gravitational attraction. Consequently, under the presence of 95% dark energy, the universe should contract and positively "not" expand.
Again, as a result of its organized interests on Einstein, the conjecture of dark energy did indeed succeed in achieving the unspoken intent of maintaining the validity of Eisteinian doctrines within the hyperdense media inside stars, quasars and black holes, but the conjecture failed to represent the data for which it was intended, and it is in dramatic disagreement with Einstein gravitation.
All in all, Santilli has initiated a much overdue new renaissance in cosmology along Galileo teaching that we must first achieve rigorous mathematical representations and experimental verifications on Earth, prior to applying our views to the universe in a scientifically and financially accountable way.
A one hour documentary directed by John Pace reviewing the content of this announcement under the title A New Renaissance in Cosmology, Part I for Matter, is available for free release on a first come first serve basis.
9. Corruption on photons, absorption and scattering.
This reduction is scientific corruption when proffered by experts for numerous reasons. To begin, the reduction to photons is clearly fraudulent for radio, infrared and other waves with large wavelengths that experience the same phenomenology of light. Additionally, the scientific scam is easily identified by the fact that the reduction to photons of light propagating in water (or other transparent media) is well known to be unable of any numerical representation of the experimental evidence, as established in Figure 3.
The scientific scam for personal gains is easily proved by asking: "show me the equations published in a refereed journal" representing all experimental evidence for a light beam propagating in water when reduced to photons. You can be sure there is none because there cannot be any. The only scientific (that is, numerical) representation of the evidence is that via the return to the Maxwell representation of light (as well as photons wavepackets when applicable) as transverse electromagnetic "waves" propagated by the ether as a universal substratum.
Corruption on absorption: When faced with the redness of the sun at the horizon, a popular scheme intended again for the unspoken aim of preserving Einsteins theories, is that the redness is due to the absorption by our atmosphere of frequencies except red. This is another scientific scam when proffered by top physicists at leading institutions (Princeton, Harvard, Cornell, Berkeley, etc.) because the sky is blue when the sun is at the zenith, thus establishing the well known physical law that red light is rapidly absorbed over the more penetrating blue frequencies.
Since red light cannot reach us following the short radial travel of about 60 miles in atmosphere, the idea that red light could reach us following the much longer tangential travel of about 6,000 miles at the horizon is sheer scientific corruption that must be identified and denounced as such if we care for our own dignity.
In any case, the scientific scam is easily unmasked by asking "show me the equations published in a refereed journal" representing via absorption about 200 nm of redshift of sunlight at the horizon of the "entire" spectrum of sunlight. You can be sure there is none because absorption is characterized by the air molecules. Consequently, the sole scientific way to have a frequency shift due to absorption is by replacing the entire Earth atmosphere (see the persistence of unchanged absorption lines with the increase of redness in Figure 8).
Corruption on scattering: When faced with the redness of the sun at the horizon, yet another posture, equally intended for the unspoken aim of preserving the validity of Einstein's doctrines in our inhomogeneous and anisotropic atmosphere, is that the redshift is caused by scattering of light among the molecules of our atmosphere. The scientific corruption in this case is quite serious because of the evident double standard:
A) For the cosmological redshift, Zwicky hypothesis of its scattering origin has been vociferously dismissed and discredited by a world wide coordinated action at high levels of the physics community to maintain the validity of Einstein theories in the universe.
B) When passing to the redness of the sun at sunset, since it visibly occurs without relative motion, the scattering hypothesis is then accepted at the highest levels of the best physics departments (sic!), again, to preserve the validity of Einstein's theories in our atmosphere.
The scientific reality is that scattering cannot occur along a straight line for any scientist to be serious because, according again to the Webster Dictionary, "scattering" means a disorderly dispersal of light in all directions, while the redness of the sun at the horizon occurs for "direct" sunlight, thus excluding contributions from the surrounding atmosphere.
The scientific corruption on scattering is also easy to unmask by asking "show me the equations published in a refereed journal" providing a "numerical" representation via scattering of the measured redshift of the "entire" spectrum of the sun for about 200 nm. You can be sure there is none because there cannot be any.
There is a limit in scams and manipulations of scientific knowledge by organized interests on Einstein for their personal gains beyond which serious scientists are not expected to cooperate in order to avoid becoming accomplices or, worse, servants on schemes against mankind.
LEGAL NOTE
As a result of the fraudulent 1986 paper by Biedenharn, over ten thousand papers were then published, and continued to be published in qdeformations without any quotation whatsoever of their origination by Santilli in 1967, despite all possible petitions to editors and authors alike (see, e.g., the Notice to Cease and Desist to the Journal of Mathematical Physics, http://www.scientificethics.org/JMP.htm), as a result of which Santilli has been dubbed "the most plagiarized scientist of the 20th century."
To have an idea of the real condition of physics in the U.S.A, one should additionally take into account: the still unresolved assassination of Eugene Mallove five years ago following his harsh criticisms to MIT; life threats to qualified dissident physicists; the organized prohibition to Halton Arp in the 1980 to have access to any astrophysics observatory anywhere in the world; the prohibition to R. M. Santilli for participating to meetings under public financial support, including prohibition for participation to a meeting in 1992 on hadronic mechanics, a field he originated and remains the most qualified contributor; and other acts of organized scientific gangsterisms perpetrated under large public funds due to complacent federal granting officers and a supportive U. S. Congress (see, e.g., http://www.scientificethics.org/ and other website on scientific ethics).
Our Foundation has been founded and amply funded to protect hereon Santilli's scientific paternities. Due to the unprecedented collapse of ethics in the mathematical, physical and chemical communities, our Foundation has hired a National Law Firm specialized in paternity frauds, which firm has authorized us to release the following statement:
The R. M. Santilli Foundation owns or is in the process of acquiring the copyrights and other intellectual rights on the entire scientific production by Prof. R. M. Santilli. In that capacity, the R. M. Santilli Foundation hereby authorizes anybody anywhere to copy in part or in full any work by Prof. Santilli, irrespective of whether in support or against, under the sole condition of quoting the original contributions by Prof. Santilli, jointly with any other desired contributions, but all quotations being in the proper chronological order. In the event of any plagiarism of Prof. Santilli scientific paternity (for the case of this announcement, any work released anywhere on frequency shift in the absence of relative motion without quoting in chronological order with other works at least Refs. [15, 46,49]), lawsuits will be filed against administrative conduits, authors, editors, publishers and federal grant officers (if applicable) without advance notice.
In short, serious scientists should be sure that they will be treated with utmost respect. Communications on patrtnity fraud of Santilli discoveries are solicited, kept confidential and rewarded. Legal fixing will be provided for crooks who dream of scamming with impunity.
REFERENCES
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[43] CERN/GRAN SASSO press release on superluminal neutrinos
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